How the U.S. Army plans to win future wars

As the Pentagon completes its troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, the U.S. Army wants to make sure that the next war is fought on the terms of future conflicts. That’s part of the driving force behind two interconnected plans called Army 2035 and Waypoint 2028 that spell out the changes the Army needs to make to win the wars it expects to fight in the future.

The U.S. Army describes its goal as “maintaining the edge,” an extremely awkward phrase meant to encompass everything that leads to victory in combat. This might include more soldiers, better positioned and longer-range artillery, or simply fighting in the right spot where the opponent is unprepared. If there’s a reason to use jargon when explaining how and why you win, it’s because advantages in battles and wars can take many forms, and it’s hard to guarantee that every one has an advantage.

As part of an ongoing review process, the U.S. Army Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, has identified four factors the Army needs to address to achieve its 2028 and 2035 goals. Taken together, the Army’s inventory of these factors, released on Aug. 6, sheds light on what kind of wars the Army expects to fight in the future.

The scale of future wars is huge

When the United States invaded Afghanistan in 2001, it dispatched thousands of soldiers. Between 2010 and 2011, the peak of US deployment, 100,000 troops were stationed in the country, albeit for a relatively short period of time. In 2003, the United States and Britain invaded Iraq with 125,000 troops and subsequently expanded their occupation. These numbers fluctuate as the war progresses, but aside from the initial invasion of Iraq, the troops are mostly used in small counter-insurgency battles. Patrols, small raids, and the occasional gunfight with insurgents located in a neighborhood or city are the default ways of warfare.

In reviewing Waypoint 2028, the Joint Arms Center examined the legacy of this discrete, small-scale battle and found that they lacked the kind of fast-paced, interconnected combat the U.S. Army hopes to fight against other militaries.

A January 2021 document on Doctrine outlines two possible scenarios, revealing how large-scale war is different from fighting an insurgency. The first is that if the battle goes well, soldiers may suddenly find themselves responsible for accepting the surrender of a large group of enemies. Gathering vital information from detained enemies is an essential part of counterinsurgency, but when many defections, such questioning is simply not possible on a large scale, and the Army would rather anticipate this outcome now than lose it in the future something important.

Another change for future wars is that the U.S. Army will not always be able to rely on friendly air support, which has been the default in the early stages of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This may not be the case against great powers, and soldiers should be trained for future big fights, understanding that the enemy may prevent air support or even launch attacks from the air themselves.

The future of war is connected

Wars have become interconnected, as the U.S. Army now knows. Ground-based reconnaissance planes can point laser target markers at enemy tanks, directing bombs dropped by jet fighters closer to their targets. Scouts communicate by radio, and guided bombs read GPS coordinates for more accurate strikes. Such attacks involve military tools on land, in the air, and in space, as well as communications across the electromagnetic spectrum. Putting all these areas together helps to understand how each individual tool could be used by the United States or other nations in the wider war.

To talk about this connectivity, the U.S. military uses the term “multi-domain operations,” another way of talking about tools being connected to each other even if they’re not physically connected. Of course, except in the fields of sea, air, land, and air, or areas that are harder to find, such as cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum, these actions also occurred in a timely manner. In addition, the communication link itself is a potential place for error.

Command and control, or the issuance and execution of orders, is critical for the U.S. Army to work together to win battles. The communication channels used, from GPS signals to radios to cell towers to commands in battle, can be jammed and attacked by jammers and intercepted by listening devices. This can lead to situations where soldiers lose contact with each other and their commanders.

As part of its 2028 plan, the Army wants to ensure that battles across time and distance can be won against an enemy willing and able to interfere with all the tools (such as helicopters, satellites and radio transmissions) that currently allow the Army to fight and spread out .

Figuring out how to ensure combat is the task of the future. 2028 and 2035 are still a long way off, and for now, the Joint Arms Center’s recommendation is to start training for future warfare now.

About the author: Kelsey D. Atherton is a defense technology reporter based in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He has worked on drones, lethal artificial intelligence, and nuclear weapons at Slate, The New York Times, Foreign Policy, and more.

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Using the same password on different occasions can be easily obtained by hackers

Using the same password on different occasions can be easily obtained by hackers

Dark web transactions are fierce: the loss of information is expanding the financial “black hole”

Our reporter/Zheng Yu/Zhang Rongwang/Beijing report

In the Internet age, you may no longer have privacy.

Because your personal information is easily exposed in the process of various data circulation, black transactions such as personal data reselling are not uncommon.

A few days ago, the data of 500 million domestic users’ bound mobile phone numbers were first linked to the dark web (an Internet that uses special encryption technology to deliberately hide relevant information). Subsequently, Marriott International Hotel Group announced that the information of about 5.2 million guests may be leaked, including names, mailing addresses, email addresses, mobile phone numbers, etc.

The dark web, also known as the “hidden web”, requires multiple special means to access the “dark web”, and ordinary users cannot search and access through conventional Internet means.

On the dark web, the ID card usage track is priced at 0.02 bitcoin per copy (the current price is equivalent to about RMB 1,000 per copy), which includes bank, accommodation, railway, civil aviation (transportation) and other ID card usage records. As of April 2, 2020, the social platform robot found by the reporter involved in darknet trading showed that the “ID card usage track information” including bank, accommodation, railway, civil aviation (traffic) and other ID card usage records had been sold recently 18 Pieces, sold 5 pieces in the past week. The ID cards provided by other different sellers also use (track) to record the number of sold products, reaching more than 20 pieces.

In recent years, all kinds of information, including financial information, have flowed to the black industry and have been used in various fields such as financial credit collection and marketing.

“The fastest way to find out the borrower’s latest takeaway order and the call records 5 minutes ago.” A former collection officer of a subsidiary of a large state-owned bank told the “China Business News” reporter that collection companies generally purchase borrower information, including but not It is limited to the mobile phone number, takeaway, express delivery, air ticket, and train ticket information associated with the ID card.

The reporter tried to find a platform for selling information, but it only cost about 8 yuan to buy the address, platform account number, password and other information of himself and other family members, and the purchased information was accurate.

The information bought with money is used pervasively, and some people even use it to commit crimes.

On April 2, China UnionPay released a report saying that 51% of consumers have encountered online fraud.

In recent years, the police in various places (Beijing, Henan, Guangdong, Shanxi and Shaanxi) have issued many reminders to alert citizens to criminals obtaining citizens’ personal information through illegal channels and telecommunication fraud crimes. In the case released by the police, a college student was deceived of 70,000 yuan in just 2 days because the scammer claimed to be an employee of an online loan platform and was able to tell his details.

Origins: Insider Leaks and Hacking

Why are mobile phone numbers, passwords and other data leaked?

A network security person said that in recent years, Internet companies have been attacked by hackers, and cases of user data leakage have occurred frequently.

Recently, the People’s Bank of China (hereinafter referred to as the “Central Bank”) released a case of financial consumption “routines”, which introduced that after a customer handled mortgage, commercial loan and other businesses in a bank and inquired about his personal credit records, he often received information from small loan companies or Bank loan phone, asking about loan needs. After the customer reported the case, it was found that the bank’s internal staff re-sold his personal information to some so-called cooperative institutions. “The bank staff illegally sold customer account information, credit records, etc., and was suspected of breaking the law.”

An engineer from a financial company also analyzed to reporters that there are two sources of data leakage: one is technically derived from the back-end database, and the other is derived from the front-end by business personnel. The leakage of database data at the technical level may be caused by the illegal copying of data in the database by the company’s technical personnel. If a company has technical personnel leaking data, it indicates that the technical security management is not in place; at the same time, it may also be caused by hacker attacks. Generally speaking, the company’s system will have corresponding information security measures, so the situation caused by hacker attack is not common, but the result and impact of the entire database data leakage caused by hacker attack are usually serious. “The most common in the market is the leakage of customer information by business personnel, exporting the customer’s personal information and reselling it.” The engineer said.

So how do hackers steal user privacy?

One of its most common practices is credential stuffing. Credential stuffing is when hackers leak user data through a certain website they have mastered and try to log in to other websites.

Liu Xingliang, president of the DCCI Internet Research Institute and member of the Information and Communication Economics Expert Committee of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, told reporters: “Many ‘Xiaobai’ (novice) users use the same account password on different websites. , the obtained username and password are often used to try to log in to other websites in batches, which is the behavior of hacker stuffing.” That is to say, if you use the same password on different occasions, it is very likely that hackers can easily obtain it through credential stuffing.

“Similar to the credential stuffing principle, there are many social mobile phone application software (APP), all of which have the function of automatically matching the contacts in the mobile phone address book and becoming friends in the social software. When the user agrees to the permission of these apps to read the address book, at the same time , the APP began to automatically match the address book friends, and match the social platform account with the mobile phone number.” The above-mentioned big data industry practitioner said: “The data leakage incident that has attracted much attention is very likely that the hacker forged a local address book database. , a large number of mobile phone numbers are listed in the database in advance, and then a large number of mobile phone numbers and APP matching functions in the library are used to match the mobile phone numbers with the corresponding accounts one by one. Hackers often use Python web crawlers to capture a large number of social platform account related data on web pages Finally, the successfully matched data (such as mobile phone numbers, social platform accounts, account-related information) will be captured and saved together by crawler, resulting in personal data leakage.”

The above-mentioned person stated that the excessive collection of data has always existed. On the one hand, web crawlers crawl the website information excessively, causing the website to crash and website user information to be stolen. On the other hand, APP excessively collects user information, including covert collection, misleading consent, compulsory authorization, excessive claims, out-of-scope mobile phone personal information, and difficulty in account cancellation.

In recent years, relevant departments have attached great importance to the protection of personal information. The Central Cyberspace Administration of China, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security, and the State Administration for Market Regulation have guided and established a special governance working group for the illegal collection and use of personal information by APPs to carry out APP rectification-related work.

Shocked: “The real-time financial information query service is not as simple as credential stuffing”

Some financial technology practitioners said that due to the existence of online black production and the chaotic state of information security before 2017, in his opinion, information reselling in batches is nothing new, but now the dark web can be so easily designated to query personal financial information, or is it still It was a shock to him, who had been in the industry for 8 years.

“Real-time designated query of a person’s bank flow and balance is definitely not something that can be done by credential stuffing. It is most likely done by internal personnel who master the database of financial institutions.” The above-mentioned financial technology practitioners believe.

After paying 100 yuan, the seller showed the reporter the function of inquiring the reserved mobile phone number and the bound ID number of the bank card through the name and the bank card number of a large state-owned bank. At the same time, the reporter saw that some dark net sellers will also have a service to check the balance of the bank card in the four elements of the bank card (name, card number, ID number, reserved mobile phone).

According to the dark web, paying 1,000 yuan can also query the bank card flow of a designated individual, including detailed bills of multiple banks for one month, three months, half a year, and one year. The price starts at 2,000 yuan.

In the view of the above-mentioned persons, in the process of data circulation, data ownership and authorization are unclear, which is an important reason for the proliferation of black transactions such as personal data reselling and social harm.

A person from a big data financial company said that taking the above-mentioned four elements of a bank as an example, the institutions that master these data include all service institutions that may obtain the data, not only banks, but also fund companies, brokerages, payment institutions, and even And e-commerce. That is to say, there are multiple channels for personal information to be leaked, which is likely to be overwhelming.

The channels are diverse, and the links are even more worrying.

“There are countless links where data leakage may occur. In many aspects of life, users need to submit personal financial information. For example, real estate brokerage agencies can also obtain users’ bank card information when assisting with housing loans and other businesses.” Liu Xingliang explained.

“The current leaked data is more of a historical issue for banks.” A banker said: “In recent years, banks did not pay special attention to the protection of customer information in the management of subordinate operating outlets in the early years. The four elements of customers and other account opening information in grassroots outlets have accumulated over time, and have gradually become the target of financial information black production. In order to profit from it, internal employees of grassroots outlets even have illegal behaviors such as reselling, which also breeds black transactions.”

The above-mentioned people also admitted that in recent years, the possibility of banks and internal employees actively leaking user data is relatively low. Because the various links and positions within the bank currently restrict each other, for example, the personnel with management authority cannot master the database, and the employees who master the database cannot query customer information at will. Every data call requires approval from various departments and levels, and it is less likely for employees to sell data to the outside world. “In addition, it is foreseeable that with the continuous strengthening of regulatory crackdowns, bank information security management will continue to increase, and the willingness to interact with data may be further reduced. Data-driven fintech companies may be greatly affected.”

In addition to traditional financial institutions, unlicensed fintech platforms and online lending platforms are also hardest hit.

“I have been paying back the money, but my family is overwhelmed, and the collector can still find my account on other social platforms. When there was still more than 200 yuan (arrears), the collector threatened to come to the door and charge a thousand yuan for the door-to-door fee.” One Online loan borrowers said.

The reporter once obtained a piece of online loan user data peddled on the dark web, including contact person, monthly income, salary payment form, mobile phone, working hours, contact address, loan amount and other information, and gave some detailed information. The reporter called many parties in the above data, and they said that the personal information was true. Among them, some users said that the information described by the reporter had been provided to online lending institutions and banks.

A person related to the online lending platform said that it does not rule out that some people use public information on the Internet and user data leaked by other platforms to sell under the name of the company. “The same borrower generally registers on multiple platforms. If these data are matched with other online loan platforms, there is a certain hit rate. It is more common that some failed online loan platforms are often neglected in data management and aftermath, resulting in such a situation.”

Consequences: Big data killing, information cocoon room, telecom fraud

In fact, not only financial information is exposed by various channels, but various personal information, including privacy, may be leaked.

“Currently, some mobile phone software has the permission to read the user’s album. If it automatically recognizes that the hair in the photo is sparse, it is possible to receive an advertisement for hair transplant.” A practitioner in the big data industry introduced reluctantly.

So what are the possible consequences of personal information leakage?

“The first is the abuse of data, for example, in the marketing process, big data kills (Internet companies provide the same goods or services, but the price seen by old customers is much more expensive than that of new customers. Merchants analyze personal data and conduct Pricing discrimination.” Experts say there is also abuse of data abroad to interfere in government elections.

In March 2018, Cambridge Analytica, a British political consulting firm, collected and used the personal data of 87 million Facebook users without authorization for the election of US President Trump.

Likewise, the information cocoon room deserves attention.

Zhang Taofu, the executive dean and professor of the School of Journalism of Fudan University, once wrote that the advent and popularization of algorithm recommendation is a manifestation of the progress of media technology, which allows information to be accurately connected with users, and personalized matching of information and users. “The catering recommendation of the algorithm will cause the flood of vulgar, vulgar, and kitsch information, which will lead to the solidification and generalization of some users’ low-level interests. Second, it will form the information ‘cocoon room’ problem. Personalized recommendation is bound to narrow the user’s choice of information, as if a wall has been built around the user, forming an information ‘cocoon room’.”

Many industry figures told reporters that personal data abuse and reselling often exist in marketing, credit risk control and even fraud.

On April 1, 2020, the Haidian Public Security Bureau in Beijing, the Criminal Investigation in Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province and other places issued a risk reminder of the scam of canceling online loan accounts, indicating that online loan fraud methods are on the rise again recently.

According to the Public Security Bureau of Pinglu County, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province, a college freshman was defrauded of 70,000 yuan within 2 days. The reason was that a person who claimed to be an employee of an online loan company told him that because he registered for an online loan If you have a company account, you need to cancel the student account, otherwise you will not be able to borrow money in the future. During this period, the liar not only sent him ID card, business license and other information to prove his identity, but also the liar can accurately name the fresh student’s name and ID number. The victim student is now on the verge of autism, neither dare to I told my family that I was afraid I couldn’t bear it anymore, and the case is currently being further processed.

According to the police, the scammers obtained detailed personal information of users during the fraud process.

So how is a data breach legally held accountable?

Zhou Chenxi, a lawyer from Beijing Jincheng Tongda (Shanghai) Law Firm, told reporters that the first is the criminal aspect. Generally speaking, individuals involved in such acts are suspected of infringing on citizens’ personal information. This crime requires the perpetrator to have intention or consensus on the crime. Therefore, if the institution involved does not have the subjective intention of the leak, it is difficult to pursue the institution’s criminal responsibility. The second is the administrative aspect. At present, the administrative supervision of personal information protection in my country is gradually strengthening. If the institution has various problems such as negligence in management, failure to repair the discovered loopholes in time, and failure to manage the third party that cooperates well, it will lead to the occurrence of In the event of a data breach, or failure to take timely measures after a data breach occurs, resulting in further losses, the institution is likely to be punished by the administrative department. In addition, because the current laws and regulations have relatively high requirements on data security, once a data leakage incident occurs, various problems of the enterprise can often be found in turn, so the risk in this area is relatively large. The third is the civil aspect. There are not many existing cases in this area, and there are not many actual judgment institutions that bear civil liability. However, considering that the outcome of a civil case largely depends on the evidence, consumers or users often Failure to prove data leaked by the agency and failure to prove specific losses resulted in losing the case. The current issue of how much evidence consumers or users need to provide may also change. At the same time, considering the continuous emphasis on personal information at the regulatory level, such cases may continue to increase in the future.

“We should think about how to balance privacy protection and reasonable use,” the above-mentioned experts suggested. “At present, in terms of data security, I personally think that the most critical issue is the standardized use of data. Start with clarifying the retention period of personal information, clarifying data ownership and used, shared boundaries.”

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New 3D Printing Material, Black Semi-Matte PLA


D printing material manufacturer ColorFabb has launched a new 3D printing wire. Compared with other PLA, black semi-matte PLA provides a smoother surface finish. Because it does not contain fibers, the wire achieves a high-quality finish. The new black semi-matte PLA can be used without having to adjust printer settings or parameters, which makes it easier for users to try.

New 3D printing material, black semi-matte PLA

In addition, ColorFabb also provides two black matt finish wires: XT-CF20 and PA-CF Low Warp. However, these materials require hardened steel nozzles for printing.

It is worth mentioning that the black semi-matte PLA provides a better aesthetic, while reducing the gloss of most PLA 3D printing. Therefore, the surface highlights are less obvious, and the final appearance is cleaner and more luxurious.

The new 3D printing materials can be printed at the usual PLA temperature and settings. This is a reliable and easy-to-use material similar to other PLA materials.

These factors need to be considered when building a DPS system that meets specific application requirements!

[Introduction]Device power supply (DPS) ICs have flexible voltage drive and current drive capabilities to provide dynamic test capabilities for automatic test equipment (ATE). When the load current is between two set current limit values, the DPS IC can be used as a voltage source; when the set current limit value is reached, the DPS IC can be smoothly converted into a precision current source.

Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the MAX32010

Figure 1 shows the simplified architecture of the MAX32010 ADI device power supply. Switches FIMODE, FVMODE and FISLAVEMODE select different modes such as FV (voltage drive), FI (current drive) and FI slave selection, while switches HIZF and HIZM select MV (measure voltage) and MI (measure current) modes, respectively. Combined with an external sense resistor, the RANGEMUX supports multiple current ranges, RA (1.2A), RB (20mA), RC (2mA), and RD (200µA). Custom current ranges can be designed by changing the sense resistor value using the formula RSENSE=1V/IOUT. With the CLEN switch and ICLMP and VCLMPDAC, the user can also set the programmable voltage and clamp current.

This article begins with two important considerations when designing a device power IC in a system, range change glitch and efficiency. The article then details some considerations for building a DPS system that meets specific application requirements.

range change glitch

Figure 2. Comparing scope change glitches between ADI and the competition

Let’s look at the first consideration, the problem of glitches caused by changing the measurement range. When the ATE performs DUT tests, the system may need to change the current range for different tests. IDDQ or quiescent current measurements usually require the lowest current range and are used to measure smaller current values. Voltage spikes or glitches when moving to the lowest current range can not only affect the measurement, but can also damage the DUT. Glitch-free range changes protect the DUT and validate testing. When tested with a 270pF load capacitance, ADI’s DPS was able to perform this transition very smoothly without any glitches, as shown in Figure 2. If no load capacitor (0pF) is used, a transition will occur in 20µs with a ramp rate of 25mV/20µs. This transition produces much smaller glitches than competing products do when transitioning. The competitor DPS had a glitch of 159mV in microseconds. As a result, ADI’s DPS performance is 536% higher than the range change performance of competing products without causing any damage to the DUT.

Device Power Efficiency

Table 1. Competitive Analysis of Device Power Efficiency

Device power efficiency is the second most important consideration when selecting a DPS IC, as this factor directly affects the cost and reliability of the system. Higher efficiency leads to greater cost savings, greater reliability, and generally longer system life. A less efficient DPS produces more heat; more heat means more losses, and the failure rate of components in the system becomes higher.

The formula for calculating the power efficiency of a device is, Efficiency = Power Out / Power In.

As shown in Table 1, ADI’s DPS supplies more current (1.2A) with higher efficiency (58.33%) compared to the current supplied by the competitor’s DPS (1A). ADI’s DPS efficiency is 11% higher than Competitor 2’s DPS IC and 155% higher than Competitor 1’s DPS IC.

Now, let’s consider some aspects of building a DPS system to meet specific application requirements.

How to meet custom load current requirements in DPS

Figure 3. Selecting Custom Load Current Using Sense Resistor

Each ATE has custom load current requirements for each device under test (DUT). The MAX32010 allows a custom range to be selected by changing only 1 sense resistor value. The RANGEMUX in the MAX32010 selects one of the following current ranges: RA (1.2A), RB (20mA), RC (2mA), or RD (200µA). Select the sense resistor value by using the formula RSENSE=1V/IOUT. For example, the load current requirement is 5mA; 5mA is the custom load current, which belongs to range B. To choose the correct RSENSE: RSENSE=RB=1V/5mA=200Ω.

How to increase output current

Figure 4. Configuring Parallel DPS for Higher Output Current

In many cases, the current required by the DUT may be higher than what a single DPS chip can provide. As shown in Figure 4, additional currents in excess of 1.2A can be achieved by paralleling multiple DPS devices. Both devices remain in FI mode, doubling the current. For example, connecting two 7V, 1.2A devices in parallel can achieve a 7V, 2.4A output current.

Figure 5. 50% Duty Cycle Pulse Test Output of the MAX32010

To improve the output drive current capability of DPS, another method is pulse output. Pulse testing is a viable option if the current requirement is only for a short period of time, as shown in Figure 5. For example to test the IV characteristics of the DUT. By changing the duty cycle of the FI turn-on time, a pulse test can be performed. In this test, the DPS mode was set to FI mode 50% of the time and to “high impedance” mode the other 50% of the time. Depending on the DUT current requirements, the duty cycle may vary. We performed this experiment on the MAX32010IC and the results are as follows:

Maximum output current = 1.436A, duty cycle up to 50%

How to choose the right cooler for your DPS system

In order to obtain a reliable and stable system, the correct choice of heat sink is necessary. The following example shows a step-by-step guide to selecting the correct heat sink for the MAX32010.

Step 1: Get the relevant dimensions of the package. A package thermal analysis aids in selecting the correct heat sink. It is important to know the area of ​​the exposed pad for heat dissipation.

Step 2: Obtain the PCB thermal properties to calculate the boundary conditions for θJA. Calculate power consumption, taking into account all methods of heat dissipation (conduction, convection, and radiation).

Figure 6. Temperature distribution of MAX32010 package with heat sink

Step 3: When calculating the temperature distribution of the package, the heat sink base area and the speed of the heat sink fan are two important variables. Remember that the junction temperature of the IC should be kept below the thermal shutdown temperature. Our analysis using still air shows that keeping the junction temperature below 140°C for the MAX32010 requires a heat sink with a base area of ​​30.48mmx30.48mm, a thickness of 5mm, and a heat sink length of 15mm.

Figure 7. Thermal Analysis of the MAX32010

Step 4: Airflow and heat sink material play an important role in keeping the IC’s junction temperature below 140°C. Our analysis shows that temperature performance can be significantly improved by increasing the airflow over the copper heat sink by 1m/s.

in conclusion

This article provides guidelines for selecting device power (DPS) ICs in automatic test equipment (ATE) systems. These considerations will help customers select a DPS IC based on their specific ATE system. A system-level architecture capable of meeting the output current and thermal requirements of an ATE system is also described.

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Carbon Fiber Rail Transit Application Example


Carbon fiber material is a high-performance structural material. It has been widely used in the automotive industry and other fields. Now it also plays an increasingly important role in rail transportation. In this article, let’s take a look at the application examples of carbon fiber rail transportation.
 
In the early 1990s, the Swiss Schindler Rolling Stock Company made a car body by winding carbon fibers. The prototype car produced met the requirements of strength and stiffness, and achieved the expected results through running tests on the railway line.
 
In 2000, France produced a double-layer TGV trailer prototype using carbon fiber, glass fiber and other suitable materials. Experiments show that the composite material body has outstanding advantages in vibration performance, thermal insulation and fire resistance, and improves the comfort of passengers. , the composite material body is 25% lighter than the aluminum alloy body.
 
In 2007, South Korea developed the TTX pendulum train. The body structure of the train adopts a hybrid design scheme. The roof, side walls and end walls are made of sandwich composite materials, and the total body mass is reduced by 28% compared with the stainless steel structure. And the vehicle body strength, fatigue strength, fire safety, dynamic characteristics and other performance are good, and put into commercial operation in 2010.
 
Domestically, CRRC Changchun Railway Vehicle Co., Ltd. has developed the world’s first full-carbon fiber composite subway vehicle body. It adopts a carbon fiber sandwich structure and is designed through modular design and integrated molding technology. The maximum running speed is 100km/h. , 35% lighter than the same type B aluminum alloy subway car body. The car body meets the use requirements of extreme harsh environments, and has excellent mechanical properties, environmental performance and fire resistance.
 
China Be-cu Prototype Material Technology Co., Ltd. has a production workshop of more than 5,000 square meters, with large-scale hot presses, autoclaves, hydraulic forming tables, Cnc high-speed milling machines and other large-scale equipment. The products produced are all made from Taiwan and Japan. And other well-known brands of raw materials production, quality assurance.

 

ISO 9001 certified. BE-CU Prototype Offering CNC machining carbon fiber and other manufacturing services for carbon fiber marterial. Various capabilities include notching, labeling, drilling carbon fiber, grinding, laser cutting carbon fiber, finishing, plating, marking, CNC milling carbon fiber and turning carbon fiber.We stock high quality 3k carbon fiber sheet in a variety of thickness, types and finish. Its a great material used in applications where light weight and strength are needed such as drones. Unlike other workshops, we have no min order and are often filling orders with a single part. We also don’t make you pay for the full sheet and you only get charged for what is used. With a large selection of material, you should find everything you need to make your project come to life. We are also able to handle larger production runs and provide a competitive pricing. If we don’t have the material or finish you require, we are more the willing to look at bringing it in for you.

What Is Carbon Fiber?Carbon fiber is made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (or pitch, viscose) and other organic fibers by carbonization (removal of most elements except carbon) by pyrolysis method under inert gas at high temperature above 1,000 °C. Inorganic polymer fibers with a carbon content of more than 90%.

The Popular Advantages Of Carbon Fiber Rollers And Their Interpretation


As an important product of carbon fiber products, carbon fiber rollers have been used in many industries, such as textiles, printing, lithium batteries, automobiles, etc., and have successfully banned metal rollers, making the performance of the equipment better. There is a strong demand for carbon fiber rollers in the market. What is the reason? What are the advantages of carbon fiber rollers? The editor of the Be-cu prototype will tell you about it in this article.

The reason why carbon fiber rollers are so popular is that carbon fiber rollers can greatly improve the overall performance of machinery and equipment after replacing metal rollers, which has great advantages both in terms of technology and production.

1. Significant weight reduction and low energy consumption. For equipment using carbon fiber rollers, because the weight is much lower, the entire roller needs less energy consumption when starting and stopping. In addition, under the effect of weight reduction, the self-weight of the carbon fiber roller is low, and the stop and start can be completed in time during the operation of the equipment. Under the effect of weight reduction, the carbon fiber roller runs faster, which can greatly improve the working efficiency of the equipment, which can greatly improve the overall performance of the equipment.

2. The width of the roller is larger. For example, in the case of textile equipment, the width of the spinning equipment is an important factor affecting the product. Compared with the traditional metal roller, the current roller is lighter in weight. The higher the strength, the larger the width of the roller can be produced. Under the influence of the length, the quality is not too heavy, and the deformation is not easy, which can better control the spinning equipment. Including on the printing equipment, the larger and wider rollers can also be used for larger prints. The longest roller of the Be-cu prototype can also be as long as four meters five. No deformation will occur on the application.

3. Long service life. In the application of equipment, the equipment will always have a sudden failure. Once the failure occurs, it will cause the roller to have an impact force. The traditional metal roller has a light weight, and the inertia is very large. One is that there are more instantaneous deformations. The carbon fiber roller has strong bending performance. In the case of impact force, it can disperse the force and crack, and quickly restore the original situation without causing maintenance. Another is that there are many chemicals on printing and textiles, which will cause corrosion to the metal roller surface. The carbon fiber roller surface has strong corrosion resistance and greatly enhanced service life.

4. The dynamic balance is stable. Because of the high strength of the carbon fiber tube, first of all, its own bending and deformation are not easy to occur, then it is more stable during dynamic balance, and then it is not easy to have pits, etc., so the actual reason is that carbon fiber The dynamic balance of the roller is very good. Compared with the metal roller, it still has a very good dynamic balance performance in long-term use.

These are the reasons why carbon fiber rollers are so popular.

Carbon Fiber Roller Advantages and Benefits

The advantages of carbon fiber rollers are actually the content of the above advantages. It is precisely because of these advantages that carbon fiber rollers have better advantages than metal rollers, which is also an important reason for their popularity.

1. Light weight, carbon fiber roll is produced by carbon fiber prepreg, and the entire material density is 1.6g/cm3. Compared with metal materials, the quality of carbon fiber roll is very light. Compared with many metal rolls, it can reduce It weighs 40%-80%, which is very good to achieve the effect of light weight, which is also an important reason for the popular advantages mentioned above.

2. High strength, in addition to light weight, carbon fiber also has very high strength, very high tensile strength, which can reach more than three times that of steel, and combined with density, the specific modulus is very, very high, which is beyond the reach of traditional metals. Therefore, it has become a representative material of high strength, which also allows more scenarios and fields of application of carbon fiber rollers.

3. High bending resistance. Although carbon fiber composite materials are brittle materials, the bending resistance of carbon fiber is very high, and the performance in specific strength is also very high, which leads to the application of carbon fiber rollers. Better width.

4. Good dynamic balance, the carbon fiber roller has a good dynamic balance, then under high-speed operation, if there is bending vibration, the carbon fiber roller can also have a good shock absorption effect, maintain the performance of high-speed operation, and also improve Good protection against damage to the device.

These are the interpretations of the advantages of carbon fiber rollers. The carbon fiber rollers with great advantages have successfully banned the metal rollers. The Be-cu prototype can be said to be a high-quality enterprise of carbon fiber rollers. It has ten years of production and machining experience. Carbon fiber rollers, including the production and machining of carbon fiber sheets, pipes, and special-shaped products, have strict quality requirements. The forming equipment and machining machines are also perfect. It can complete the production of various types of carbon fiber products and better satisfy customers. Welcome Everyone come to consult.

ISO 9001 certified. BE-CU Prototype Offering CNC machining carbon fiber and other manufacturing services for carbon fiber marterial. Various capabilities include notching, labeling, drilling carbon fiber, grinding, laser cutting carbon fiber, finishing, plating, marking, CNC milling carbon fiber and turning carbon fiber.We stock high quality 3k carbon fiber sheet in a variety of thickness, types and finish. Its a great material used in applications where light weight and strength are needed such as drones. Unlike other workshops, we have no min order and are often filling orders with a single part. We also don’t make you pay for the full sheet and you only get charged for what is used. With a large selection of material, you should find everything you need to make your project come to life. We are also able to handle larger production runs and provide a competitive pricing. If we don’t have the material or finish you require, we are more the willing to look at bringing it in for you.

What Is Carbon Fiber?Carbon fiber is made of polyacrylonitrile (PAN) (or pitch, viscose) and other organic fibers by carbonization (removal of most elements except carbon) by pyrolysis method under inert gas at high temperature above 1,000 °C. Inorganic polymer fibers with a carbon content of more than 90%.

Ministry of Industry and Information Technology: my country’s electric smart vehicles have formed a first-mover advantage in the world

The two-day 2021 China Auto Chongqing Forum concluded on June 13. The relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology said that the latest data shows that China’s electric smart vehicles have formed a certain first-mover advantage on a global scale.

The relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology pointed out that the current global automobile industry has entered a period of great changes unseen in a century, and electrification, networking, and intelligence have become the trend and trend of development, and the functions of automobile products have changed from simple means of transportation to mobile energy storage units, With the expansion of smart digital space, the proportion of electronics and software in the value chain is increasing. On the whole, my country’s auto industry has entered a period of superposition of its own transformation and upgrading and global technological change. The latest data shows that the development of this industry has achieved positive results.

Luo Junjie, Director of the First Division of Equipment Industry of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology: The R&D capability of the company has been significantly enhanced, the product quality level has been steadily improved, and the production and sales volume of new energy vehicles has ranked first in the world for six consecutive years. In May of this year, our market penetration rate exceeded 10%, and the loading rate of new vehicles with L2 autonomous driving function exceeded 15%, forming a certain first-mover advantage globally.

The person in charge of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) Automobile Industry Branch also pointed out that China’s automobile industry has ushered in a new era of electric intelligence. In 2020, although the sales of passenger cars in China declined slightly, the sales of intelligent and connected passenger cars rose. The sales of semi-autonomous vehicles exceeded 3 million, a year-on-year increase of 107%, accounting for about 15%. It is predicted that by 2025, the market share of partially autonomous and conditional autonomous vehicles will exceed 50%.

The Links:   C070FW01-V0 PM300DSA120

Intel releases second-generation Horse Ridge cryogenic quantum control chip

At the Intel Research Open Day event held on December 4th, Beijing time, Intel launched its second-generation cryogenic control chip, Horse Ridge II, marking another milestone in Intel’s breakthrough in quantum computing scalability. Scalability is one of the biggest challenges of quantum computing. Building on the innovations of the first-generation Horse Ridge controller introduced in 2019, Horse Ridge II supports enhanced functionality and higher levels of integration for efficient control of quantum systems. New capabilities include the ability to manipulate and read the state of qubits, as well as the ability to control the multiple quantum gates required to entangle multiple qubits.

“With Horse Ridge II, Intel continues to lead innovation in quantum cryogenic control, leveraging the interdisciplinary expertise of integrated circuit design, research and technology development teams,” said Jim Clarke, director of quantum hardware, Intel Research Component Research Group. , just increasing the number of qubits without addressing the resulting wiring complexity is like owning a sports car but always stuck in traffic. Horse Ridge II further simplifies the control of quantum circuits and we look forward to this development Being able to improve fidelity and reduce power output brings us one step closer to ‘traffic-free’ integrated quantum circuits.”

Early current quantum systems use room-temperature electronics connected by many coaxial cables to qubit chips in dilution refrigerators. Given the cooler’s form factor, cost, power consumption, and thermal load, this approach cannot scale for a large number of qubits. With the original version of Horse Ridge, Intel took the first step in addressing these challenges by radically simplifying the requirements: No more needing to use multiple racks for equipment, and no longer needing to run thousands of wires in and out of cooling machine to run quantum computing devices. Instead, Intel replaced these bulky instruments with highly integrated systems-on-chips (SoCs) that simplify system design and use sophisticated signal processing techniques to speed up setup times, improve qubit performance, and allow engineering teams to efficiently integrate Quantum systems scale to larger qubits.

The Horse Ridge II’s design is based on the first-generation SoC’s ability to generate radio frequency pulses to manipulate the states of qubits, also known as Qubit Drives. It introduces two additional control functions, allowing further integration of external Electronic controls into the SoC running inside the cryogenic refrigerator.

New features include:

Qubit readout: This function allows reading the current qubit state. This readout is significant because it allows for on-chip low-latency qubit state detection without storing large amounts of data, saving memory and power consumption.

Multigate Pulsing: The ability to control multiple quantum gates simultaneously, which is critical for efficient qubit reading and entanglement and manipulation of multiple qubits, and lays the groundwork for more scalable systems Base.

By adding a programmable microcontroller running within an integrated circuit, Horse Ridge II enables a higher level of flexibility and sophisticated control over how the three control functions are performed. The microcontroller uses digital signal processing techniques to additionally filter the pulses, helping to reduce crosstalk between qubits.

Horse Ridge II uses Intel® 22nm Low-Power FinFET Technology (22FFL), and its functionality has been proven at 4 Kelvin. Today, a quantum computer operates in the millikelvin range, just a fraction of a degree above absolute zero. But silicon spin qubits (the basis of Intel’s quantum work) have the ability to operate at temperatures of 1 Kelvin or higher, which would greatly reduce the difficulty of cooling quantum systems.

Intel’s cryogenic control research focuses on bringing the control and silicon spin qubits to the same operating temperature level. Continued advancements in this area, as demonstrated in Horse Ridge II, represent today’s advances in the dramatic expansion of quantum interconnects and are a key element in Intel’s long-term vision for quantum utility.

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Research team develops conductive polymer patch that can connect hearts to bridge scar tissue?

A research team led by Associate Professor Michael Monaghan at Trinity University Dublin, Ireland, has developed a conductive polymer patch that can help repair damaged hearts, designed to attach to the outside of the heart and bridge areas of scar tissue. A related research paper was recently published in the journal Advanced Functional Materials.

It is understood that after a heart attack, some of the beating heart muscle tissue is eventually replaced by non-beating scar tissue, which permanently impairs the function of the heart. Once implanted in the heart, the patch would be able to pick up electrical signals from surrounding heart cells, propagate their signals across the gap, and expand and contract in time with them. So far, the researchers have tested the patch on isolated biological tissue and plan to conduct animal experiments.

The patch is made of a medically-approved stretchable polymer and coated with a mesh-like layer of a separate conducting polymer – polypyrrole. This is done through “melted direct write” technology developed by Spraybase, a spin-off company of Trinity University Dublin.

We have seen other experimental “cardiac patches” previously designed to perform a similar function. While many of the previous experiments have integrated actual living heart cells, the new patch is designed to work alone, and it can also work with added cells for enhanced function.

The Links:   LM150X08-TLC1 PM150CVA120 COMPONENTS

How to convert camera RGB/YUV to standard display data?

Maxim serializers connect and control camera ICs, including the MAX9257 (with a half-duplex UART/I²C control channel), MAX9259, and MAX9263 (both with a full-duplex synchronous control channel). The MAX9263 also supports broadband digital content protection (HDCP). This application note describes how to convert the camera’s RGB or YUV output to RGB data accepted by standard monitors.

introduction

Maxim serializers connect and control camera ICs, including the MAX9257 (with a half-duplex UART/I²C control channel), MAX9259, and MAX9263 (both with a full-duplex synchronous control channel). The MAX9263 also supports broadband digital content protection (HDCP). This application note describes how to convert the camera’s RGB or YUV output to RGB data accepted by standard monitors.

Camera output data format

A camera chip, such as the OmniVision® OV10630, can be connected via a serializer. The interface pins of the OV10630 include: Pixel Clock, PCLK, Line Active, HREF, Frame Sync, VSYNC, and Parallel Data Bit D[9:0]. Data bits are stable on the rising edge of the clock.

YUV and raw RGB data formats

CMOS camera sensors include millions of light-sensitive cells, each of which responds to an entire wavelength of light. Use filters to make certain sensors respond only to red, green, or blue light signals. Adjacent photosensitive cells are usually arranged in a Bayer-structured color filter law, and the number of green color filters is twice the number of red or blue color filters. This method is used to simulate the photosensitive characteristics of the human eye. Reading the sensor unit output from left to right and top to bottom, the raw RGB data sequence is blue, green…blue,green (end of first line), green, red…green, red (end of second line), and so on ,As shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. Raw RGB data arrangement

Generates RGB data with the same density as sensor cells by interpolating adjacent cells. In addition, the image can be restored according to certain rules using the colors of adjacent cells. One of the rules for forming each pixel’s RGB data set is to use adjacent cells in the same row, plus green adjacent cells in the next (or previous) row. The interpolated RGB data sequence is …, red(i-1), green(i-1), blue(i-1), red(i), green(i), blue(i), red(i+ 1), green (i+1), blue (i+1), … as shown in Figure 2. Each pixel requires a set of RGB data to drive the color Display and maintain the highest resolution of the camera sensor. The luminance resolution of the interpolated RGB data is close to that of the sensor unit, but the chrominance resolution is inferior. Since the human eye is more sensitive to the grayscale of each pixel than to the color component of the pixel, the perceived resolution is essentially the same as the sensor unit resolution.

Figure 2. RGB data arrangement

However, this interpolation algorithm for RGB data triples the data rate. To reduce data rates, especially where image transmission is required, the YUV color space (compressing analog color television signals to the frequency band of analog black and white television) can be used. In the following formula, the brightness is represented by Y, the color difference between blue and brightness is represented by U, and the color difference between red and brightness is represented by V,

where the typical color weights are: WR = 0.299, WB = 0.114, WG = 1 – WR – WB = 0.587, and the normalized values ​​are UMAX, VMAX = 0.615.
For camera sensors with Bayer filters, adjacent pixels have approximately the same U or V data, depending on row index i and pixel index j (if the rule is adjacent colors). Using this guide, YUV data can be generated directly from RGB data according to the following formula.

To reduce the data rate, even pixel-indexed U data and odd pixel-indexed V data, and even and odd pixel-indexed Y data are utilized. The compressed YUV data is sent in the arrangement shown in Figure 3, namely: Y1, U0 and V1 are the data of pixel 1; Y2, U2 and V1 are the data of pixel 2 and so on.

Figure 3. YUV422 data arrangement

422 represents the sampling ratio of Y:U:V, the 4:x:x standard is the early color NTSC standard, and is resampled according to 4:1:1 chroma, so the color resolution of the image is only a quarter of the luminance resolution one. Currently, only high-end devices that process uncompressed signals use 4:4:4 color resampling, with the same resolution for both luminance and color information.

Serializer Input Format

The parallel interface of Maxim serializers is designed for 24-bit RGB data, specifically the MAX9259, which has a pixel clock bit (PCLK) and 29 data bits for 24-bit RGB as well as line sync, vertical sync, and 3 control bits. In addition to the parallel data interface, the DRS and BWS pins need to be set high or low to select the data rate and bus width, respectively.

Maxim Serializers/Deserializers

MAX9257 and MAX9258 serializer/deserializer (SerDes) with 18-bit parallel I/O for YUV data transfer; MAX9259/MAX9260 chipset with 28-bit parallel I/O for RGB data transfer; MAX9263/MAX9264 SerDes With 28-bit parallel input/output, HDCP function has been added. In addition, the MAX9265 and MAX9268 28-bit SerDes feature a camera link instead of a parallel input/output interface. All 28-bit Maxim serializers and deserializers have the same parallel/serial data mapping and can be used interchangeably. For example, the MAX9259 serializer can be used with the MAX9268 deserializer to transmit RGB data (with the help of an FPGA). Data is sent from the CMOS camera over the serial link to the camera link interface’s display.

Serializer Mapping

To match the output interface of the MAX9268 deserializer camera link, the parallel RGB data should be mapped according to the following signal diagram. Figure 4 shows the mapping between the parallel bits of the MAX9268 and its camera link output, and Figure 5 shows the RGB data mapping for the camera link. Table 1 shows the corresponding content map for the MAX9259 serializer.

Figure 4. MAX9268 Internal Parallel-to-Output Mapping

Figure 5. Camera Link Content Mapping

Table 1. MAX9259 Serializer RGB Content Bitmap

Color Conversion: YUV to RGB

The FPGA chip can convert the compressed (reduced data rate) camera data YUV into RGB data for the MAX9259 serializer. When using 8-bit fixed-point operation, the formula for color space conversion is as follows. In Equation 2 and Equation 3, n of Dn and En is an even number.

FPGA solution

input buffer

The input buffer circuit includes a counter, three registers, and combinatorial logic to convert a single-byte clock input to a three-byte clock output at half the input clock rate. The combinational logic is only used to enable the corresponding registers of the Y, U and V bytes, respectively.

Figure 6. Input Buffer Circuit

clock switch

The FPGA output pixel clock rate is half the camera pixel clock rate and is used to drive the serializer pixel clock input. However, the camera does not output a pixel clock until it is initialized. The solution is to use a 2:1 clock multiplexer (mux) and a clock detector inside the FPGA, the mux being controlled by the clock detector. On power-up, the mux’s default clock comes from the camera’s clock oscillator, allowing the SerDes chipset to provide the control channel to start the camera. The clock detector counts the field sync pulses, and after several field sync pulses, the mux switches to half the camera pixel clock rate. When using an HD camera sensor, such as the OV10630, each field sync cycle contains more than 100k pixel clocks. A few field sync cycles are sufficient for the camera’s phase-locked loop (PLL) to stabilize. Field sync counting is much more efficient than pixel clock counting and saves resources on FPGA logic cells.

Intermediate buffer

The delay of the hardware circuit is not reflected in the format conversion expression. To generate RGB data from YUV input, two to three multiplications and three to four additions are required. Although the delay of the FPGA logic circuit (gate circuit) is only a few nanoseconds, the carrier transmission, the adder, and the shift multiplier all cause different degrees of delay, which increases the overall delay. To minimize delay, each constant multiplier is approximated by an adder with two shifted inputs (representing the 2 non-zero MSBs of the constant). At an input YUV byte rate of about 100MHz, the delay will cross the timing boundaries of adjacent pixels, adding to image noise. Extended delays are eliminated by intermediate registers after each multiplier.

The YUV to RGB color conversion mentioned above has been used in the Actel® ProASIC3 A3PN125Z FPGA, and Figure 7 shows the schematic for implementing this FPGA.

Clear Image (PDF, 172kB)

Clear Image (PDF, 180kB)
Figure 7. FPGA Implementation of YUV to RGB Converter

application circuit

The camera chip provided by the manufacturer may be located on the PCB daughter board. Figure 8 shows the functional block diagram of the camera daughter board module. Inputs include power, PWR, and crystal clock (XCLK). The output signals include parallel data bits (D0..D9), I²C bus (SDA, SCL), video sync (HREF, VSYNC) and pixel clock (PCLK).

Figure 8. Camera Module Functional Block Diagram

Figure 9 shows the schematic of the FPGA and serializer chips of the application circuit. The circuit is powered by a serial cable consisting of two twisted pairs, one pair is used to transmit the serial signal and the other pair is used for power supply. Standalone LDO power ICs are used in serializers and FPGA devices. The camera module uses bypass capacitors and comes with an LDO power chip to further reduce potential interference. The data link between the FPGA and the serializer uses damping resistors.

Figure 9a. FPGA portion of application circuit

Figure 9b. Serializer Section of Application Circuit

The MAX9259 can also be connected directly to a camera sensor, such as the OV10630, to build smaller cameras. The color space conversion FPGA can be placed after the deserializer. Since this application requires a camera link output that can be driven directly by the MAX9268, the color conversion FPGA is placed between the camera sensor and the serializer (MAX9259).

Video capture example

The camera application circuit shown in Figure 10 is also built using these camera circuits.

Figure 10. Camera Application Circuit

in conclusion

This application note describes a typical scenario in which Maxim’s camera deserializer IC works with an FPGA. Application schematics and FPGA code are provided for use with existing reference designs. An update to this application note is coming soon: RAW RGB to 24-bit RGB FPGA Converter.

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