Inspur Group is the fastest-growing server manufacturer in the world, and its sales volume ranks among the top three in the world and No. 1 in China. The company’s high-end server motherboard R&D and production base in Suzhou has just been completed, and it has purchased Universal Instruments FuzionOF? rate and speed up mass production.
Inspur Group is a leading cloud computing and big data service provider in China. It owns four listed companies: Inspur Information, Inspur Software, Inspur International, and Huaguang Optoelectronics. Its business covers cloud data center, cloud service big data, smart city, and smart enterprise. Industry group, providing IT products and services to more than 100 countries and regions around the world. Inspur has always been adhering to the concept of innovation, leading the development of China’s IT industry with forward-looking technological breakthroughs several times in important historical stages of the development of China’s information industry.
FuzionOF pick and place machine is the fastest automated platform, especially suitable for assembling high-end server motherboards, which can handle baseboards up to 813 mm long and weighing up to 10 kg. In terms of handling components, FuzionOF can not only mount a whole series of surface mount standard components, but also handle special-shaped components with an area as large as 150 square millimeters and as high as 33 mm with a placement force of 5 kg. FuzionOF has a built-in leading computer operating program, which can automatically calibrate components and adopt closed-loop control to ensure the accuracy and repeatability of pick-and-place to reduce defects, rework and scrap.
“The group’s project in Suzhou is positioned as a high-standard smart factory, and it is committed to establishing a production model with high production efficiency and easy expansion, laying a solid foundation for the expansion plan in the next few years.” Inspur’s production manager said. “When we selected server motherboard assembly equipment, only FuzionOF could meet all the requirements, including more than 20 DIMM modules in two colors and 40 capacitor plug-ins. Not only that, FuzionOF is also equipped with a complete set of DIMM module automatic feeding solutions and related The tool, whether it is yield or cycle speed, is very satisfactory.”
Brad Bennett, vice president of customer service of Universal Instruments, said: “This time, we can stand out from many suppliers and become a partner of Inspur, which is a successful step for Universal Instruments. Inspur is a company with a very fast growth rate, and we look forward to working with them. Let’s move forward together. Several top OEM and EMS server manufacturers have already used FuzionOF assembly machines to assemble motherboards to improve productivity. We believe that FuzionOF will become the mainstay of Inspur’s server motherboard production line.”
On May 14, according to foreign media reports, on Wednesday, local time, Intel Capital, a global investment agency under Intel, invested in two more Chinese semiconductor start-ups, namely ProPlus and Spectrum. Materials).
According to the data, Gelun Electronics is an Electronic design automation (EDA) software supplier, specializing in providing advanced device modeling and fast circuit simulation solutions. The company uses software to shorten the time between design and manufacture, increasing the speed of chip design and manufacturing efficiency, enabling the semiconductor industry to create more powerful and diverse products.
Perma Pure Materials is a supplier of high-purity specialty gases and materials for semiconductor manufacturing plants, with one of the largest germane production bases located in Quanzhou, Fujian.
Since its founding in 1991, Intel Capital has invested $12.9 billion in more than 1,582 companies around the world. Intel has said it will invest $300 million to $500 million in 2020 in technology companies focused on technologies such as artificial intelligence, intelligent edge and network transformation.
Wireless charging technology shows great potential in the consumer market. Charging Electronic devices without wires not only provides a convenient solution for portable device users, but also enables designers to find more innovative solutions to their problems. Many battery-operated portable devices can benefit from this technology, from cell phones to electric vehicles.
The inductive coupling method enables efficient and versatile wireless charging. The Wireless Power Consortium (WPC) has developed a standard for ease of use and benefits for both designers and consumers. Interoperability is created between powered devices (power transmitters, charging stations) and powered devices (power receivers, portable devices). Founded in 2008, WPC is comprised of companies from various industries in Asia, Europe and the United States, including electronic equipment manufacturers and original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The WPC standard defines the type of inductive coupling (coil structure) and the communication protocol used by low-power wireless devices. Any device that works under this standard can be paired with any other WPC-compatible device. An important benefit of this approach is that it utilizes these coils to enable communication between the power transmitter and power receiver. See Figure 1 for a typical application diagram.
Wireless charging WPC standard
Under the WPC standard, the “low power consumption” of wireless transmission means that the power consumption is only 0-5W. Systems that meet this standard range use inductive coupling between two planar coils to transfer power from a power transmitter to a power receiver. The distance between the two coils is generally 5mm. Output voltage regulation is handled by a global digital control loop, where the power receiver communicates with the power transmitter and requires more or less power consumption. The communication is a one-way communication from the power receiver to the power transmitter through backscatter modulation. In backscatter modulation, the power receiver coil is loaded, changing the current draw of the power transmitter. We monitor these current changes and demodulate them into the information needed for the two devices to work together.
The WPC standard defines three main aspects of the system – the power transmitter that provides the power, the power receiver that uses the power, and the communication protocol between the two devices. Below, we will describe these three aspects in detail.
The direction of power transfer is always from the power transmitter to the power receiver. The key circuits of the power transmitter are the primary coil for transmitting power to the power receiver, the control unit for driving the primary coil, and the communication circuit for demodulating the voltage or current of the primary coil. We have limited the flexibility of the power transmitter design to provide consistent power and voltage levels to the power receiver.
The Power Receiver presents itself as a compatible device to the Power Transmitter and also provides configuration information. Once the transmitter starts power transfer, the power receiver sends some error packets to the power transmitter, requesting more or less power. The power transmitter stops supplying power upon receipt of a “terminate power” message, or if no data packets are received for more than 1.25 seconds. When no power is being delivered, the power transmitter enters a low-power standby mode.
The WPC specification allows the use of fixed and mobile configurations. A single fixed coil (called Type A1) is a TI supported solution.
The power transmitter (which is usually a flat user on which the power receiver is placed) is connected to the power source. The WPC compliant device coil acts as a 50% duty cycle resonant half bridge with a 19-VDC (±1 V) input. If the power receiver requires more or less power, the coil frequency changes, but remains between 110 and 205kHz, depending on the power requirements.
The power receiver is usually a portable device. The key circuits of the power receiver are the secondary coil for receiving power from the power transmitter, the rectifier circuit for converting AC to DC, the power conditioning circuit for converting unregulated DC to regulated DC, and A communication circuit for modulating a signal to the secondary coil. The Power Receiver is responsible for all communications of its identity and power requirements, since the Power Transmitter is just a “listener”.
Although the design of the power transmitter has been restricted to conform to the WPC standard, there is more freedom in designing the power receiver. We can adjust the coil size of the power receiver to meet the volume requirements of the device. With a typical efficiency of 70% on a 5-V, 500-mA output, we full-wave rectify the coil voltage of the power receiver. Since the communication between the two devices is unidirectional, WPC chooses the power receiver as the “speaker”. Inductive power transfer works by coupling a magnetic field to the secondary coil. The uncoupled magnetic lines of force rotate around the primary coil, and as long as the magnetic lines of force do not couple parasitic loads, there will be no losses (eg: eddy current losses in metals, etc.).
letter of agreement
Communication protocols include analog and digital pinging; identification and configuration; and power transmission. The typical startup sequence that occurs when the Power Receiver is placed on top of the Power Transmitter is as follows:
1. A simulated ping from a power transmitter detects the presence of an object.
2. The digital ping from the power transmitter is an extended version of the analog ping and gives the power receiver time to reply with a signal strength packet. If the information strength packet is valid, the power transmitter keeps the coil energized and proceeds to the next step.
3. During the identification and configuration phase, the power receiver will send some data packets to identify it and provide configuration and setup information to the power transmitter.
4. In the power transfer phase, the power receiver sends a control error packet to the power transmitter to increase or decrease the power. During normal operation, these packets are sent every 250ms or so, and every 32ms during large signal changes. Also, during normal operation, the power transmitter will send power packets every 5 seconds.
5. To terminate the power transfer, the power receiver will send a “terminate charging” message, or no communication for 1.25 seconds. Either event will put the power transmitter into a low power state.
TI’s WPC Compliant Solutions
TI is a founding member of the WPC and has played an active role in developing a robust wireless charging specification. TI uses three newly developed ICs to provide reliable solutions for both power receivers and power transmitters. The power receiver uses MSP430bq1010 and bq25046 devices. The power transmitter is based on the bq500110, which supports the A1 type (single coil) configuration. Both receiver and transmitter ICs are compatible with other WPC-compatible solutions.
The MSP430bq1010 in the power receiver handles all logic functions and communications. An on-board analog-to-digital converter monitors the voltage level into the bq25046 and the current level out of the bq25046. The bq25046 provides load current information to the MSP430bq1010, which then uses this information to control the operating point of the power transmitter. The bq25046 has a low-current 3.3-V low-dropout regulator (LDO) that powers the MSP430bq1010 and logic circuits, while a larger 5.0-V LDO is capable of delivering up to 1A to the main output.
The power transmitter solution is implemented with the bq500110. This device demodulates and decodes serial data from a power receiver. The control circuit first confirms that the power receiver is actually a WPC compliant device, and then configures the power transmitter accordingly.
TI’s BQTESLA100LP EVM kit combines separate transmitter and receiver designs into a single kit that includes a mechanical package. This kit can be used both for IC evaluation and as a design example. WPC has confirmed that these power transmitter and receiver solutions are compliant with the Version 1.0 specification. No software is required to operate the EVM, it only requires a 19-V input. The output of the EVM kit is 5V at currents up to 1A. The transmitter EVM includes several LED options for visual indication of power transmitter status. Additionally, two buzzer options provide an audible prompt for the start of power transfer.
The WPC standard is a set of guidelines that convince manufacturers that their components can work in harmony with other various WPC-certified components designed for inductive power transfer, leading to the development of numerous solutions.
National Instruments announced the appointment of Thomas Benjamin as executive vice president, chief technology officer (CTO) and director of product analysis. Thomas will lead NI in developing the software-driven business model critical to the test and measurement market, while driving disruptive technology innovation. The CTO role is critical in driving the company to find new long-term growth opportunities, including new areas related to data, product analytics and enterprise software.
Thomas Benjamin is Executive Vice President, Chief Technology Officer (CTO) and Head of Product Analysis at NI
In addition, the company announced the promotion of NI veteran leader Scott Rust to executive vice president of platforms and products. In this role, he will lead NI’s global development team, building products that meet customer needs and platform capabilities that create differentiation and leverage across NI’s business.
“NI has a strong leadership team, and the addition of Thomas will advance our ability to drive growth using software, data, and new business models,” said Eric Starkloff, CEO of NI. “Thomas’ external experience and software knowledge combine with Scott’s commitment to NI platforms and A deep understanding of our customers enables us to achieve a greater degree of success for our customers and our business.”
Thomas joins NI with extensive experience building software-as-a-service (SaaS) and cloud-native solutions based on APIs, data, and insights. His most recent position was CTO and Senior Vice President of Technology at SAP Ariba. Thomas’ career also includes CTO and Vice President at General Electric and Emirates Group, as well as technical leadership positions at Visa, Walmart and Oracle.
“NI is a leader in automated test and measurement hardware and software, which is a good match for my track record of enabling robust business models based on a strong technology foundation,” said Thomas Benjamin, NI CTO. The right combination of products provides value to customers, and I believe that the people at NI can unlock endless possibilities and change the way we design the future.”
digital potentiometer(digiPOT) are often used to easily adjust the AC or DC voltage or current output of sensors, power supplies, or other devices that require some type of calibration, such as timing, frequency, contrast, brightness, gain, and offset adjustment. Digital settings avoid virtually all issues associated with mechanical potentiometers, such as physical size, mechanical wear, wiper settings, resistance drift, and sensitivity to vibration, temperature, and humidity, as well as inflexibility of layouts caused by the use of screwdrivers .
digiPOT has two modes of use, potentiometer mode orvariable resistormodel. Figure 1 shows the potentiometer mode. At this time, there are 3 terminals. The signal is connected through the A terminal and the B terminal, and the W terminal (cursor-like) provides an attenuated output voltage. The wiper is normally connected to terminal B when the digital ratio control input is all zeros.
Figure 1. Potentiometer Mode
When the wiper is hardwired to either end, the potentiometer becomes a simplevariable resistor, as shown in picture 2. Fewer external pins are required in variable resistor mode, resulting in a smaller size. Some digiPOTs only have variable resistor mode.
Figure 2. Variable Resistor Mode
There is no limit to the current or voltage polarity at the digiPOT resistor terminals, but the amplitude of the AC signal cannot exceed the power supply rails (VDD and VSS) when the device operates in variable resistor mode, especially in low resistance settings, the maximum current orcurrent density, should be restricted.
typical application Signal attenuation is inherent in potentiometer mode because the device is essentially a voltage divider. The output signal is defined as: VOUT = VIN × (RDAC/RPOT), in RPOTis the nominal end-to-end resistance of the digiPOT, RDAC is the digitally selected resistance between the W terminal and the input signal reference pin, the reference pin is usually the B terminal, as shown in Figure 3.
Figure 3. Signal Attenuator
Signal amplification requires active components, usually inverting or non-inverting amplifiers.With the appropriate gain formula, either potentiometer mode or variable resistor mode can be used
Figure 4 shows a non-inverting amplifier, where the digiPOT acts as a potentiometer, and the gain can be adjusted by feedback. Since part of the output will feedback, RAW/(RWB +RAW), should be equal to the input, and the ideal gain is:
Figure 4. Noninverting Amplifier in Potentiometer Mode
The gain of this circuit is the same asRAW, inversely proportionalRAWIt rises rapidly as it approaches zero, showing a hyperbolic transfer function characteristic.To limit the maximum gain, insert a resistor withRAW(in the denominator of the gain formula) in series
If a linear gain relationship is desired, the variable resistor mode can be used with fixed external resistors, as shown in Figure 5. The gain is now defined as follows:
Figure 5. Noninverting Amplifier in Variable Resistor Mode
Best performance is obtained by connecting the low capacitance terminal (W pin in newer devices) to the op amp input.
Advantages of digiPOT for signal amplification The circuits shown in Figures 4 and 5 have high input impedance and low output impedance and can work with unipolar and bipolar signals. The digiPOT can be used for vernier operation to provide higher resolution in a smaller range with fixed external resistors, and can also be used in op amp circuits with or without signal inversion. Additionally, the digiPOT has a low temperature coefficient, typically 5 ppm/°C in potentiometer mode and 35 ppm/°C in varistor mode.
Limitations of digiPOT for signal amplification When dealing with AC signals, the performance of digiPOT is limited by bandwidth and distortion. Due to parasitic components, the bandwidth is the maximum frequency that can pass through the digiPOT with less than 3 dB of attenuation.total harmonic distortion (THD) (defined here as the ratio of the sum of the rms of the last four harmonics to the fundamental value of the output) is a measure of the attenuation of a signal as it passes through the device. The performance limits covered by these specifications are determined by the internal digiPOT architecture.Through analysis, we can better understand these specifications comprehensively and reduce their negative
The internal architecture has evolved from a traditional series resistor array (as shown in Figure 6a) to a segmented architecture (as shown in Figure 6b). The main improvement is to reduce the number of internal switches required.The first case uses a serial topology with a number of switches ofN = 2nis the number of bits of resolution. n = 10, 1024 switches are required
Figure 6. a) traditional architecture, b) segmented architecture
Proprietary (patented) segmented architecture with cascading connections minimizes the total number of switches. The example in Figure 6b shows a two-stage architecture consisting of two types of blocks, the MSB on the left and the LSB on the right.
The upper and lower modules on the left are a series of switches (MSB segment) for coarse adjustment of the number of digits. The right module is a string of switches (LSB segment) for fine-tuning the number of bits. MSB switch close to R after coarse adjustmentA/RBCompare. The total resistance of the LSB string is equal to a single resistive element in the MSB string, and the LSB switch can be ratio-finely tuned to any point on the main switch string. The A and B MSB switches are complementary.
The number of switches for the segmented architecture is:
N = 2m + 1 + 2n – m,
where n is the total number of bits and m is the number of bits of resolution for the MSB word.For examplen = 10 and m = 5, then 96 switches are required.
The segmented approach requires fewer switches than traditional switch strings:
The number of switches that differ between the two = 2n – (2m + 1 + 2n – m)
In this example, the amount saved is
1024 – 96 = 928!
Both architectures must choose switches with different resistance values, taking into account the sources of ac error in the analog switches. These CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide semiconductor) switches consist of parallel P-channel and N-channel MOSFETs. This basic bidirectional switch can maintain a fairly constant resistance (RON) signal up to the full supply rail.
bandwidth Figure 7 shows the parasitic devices that affect the AC performance of a CMOS switch.
The transitive relationship is defined by the following formula, which contains the assumptions:
The source impedance is 0 Ω
No external load influence
RDACis the setting resistance
RPOTis the end-to-end resistance
CDLSBis the total drain-gate + drain-bulk capacitance of the LSB segment
CSLSBis the total source-gate + source-bulk capacitance of the LSB segment
CDMSBis the drain-gate + drain-bulk capacitance of the MSB switch
CSMSBis the source-gate + source-bulk capacitance of the MSB switch
moffis the number of disconnect switches in the MSB path of the signal
monis the number of on-off switches of the signal MSB path
The transfer formula is affected by various factors and has a certain relationship with the code, so we simplify the formula with the following additional assumptions
CDMSB + CSMSB = CDSMSB
CDLSB + CSLSB >> CDSMSB
(CDLSB + CSLSB) = CW (see data sheet for details)
The CDShas no effect on the transfer formula, but since it usually occurs much higher than the poleRC The low pass filter is the main response. The ideal approximate simplified formula is:
inCLis the load capacitance.
The BWCode dependent, worst case is when the code is at half scale, the AD5292’s digital value is 29= 512, the digital value of AD5291 is 27 = 128 (see Table of Contents). Figure 8 shows the low-pass filtering effect, which is code dependent and varies with different nominal resistance and load capacitance values.
Figure 8. Maximum Bandwidth vs. Load Capacitance for Various Resistor Values
The parasitic trace capacitance of the PC board should also be considered, otherwise the maximum bandwidth will be lower than the expected value. The trace capacitance can be simply calculated using the following formula:
εRis the dielectric constant of the sheet
Ais the trace area (cm2)
dis the layer spacing (cm)
For example, assuming that the FR4 board has two signal layers and a power/ground layer, εR = 4, trace length = 3 cm width = 1.2 mm, layer spacing = 0.3 mm; t then the total trace capacitance is about 4 pF.
distortion THD is used to quantify the nonlinearity of the device as an attenuator.This nonlinearity is determined by the internal switch and its on-resistance as a function of voltage RONproduced. Figure 9 shows an example of amplified amplitude distortion.
Figure 9. Distortion
Compared to a single internal passive resistor, the switch’sRONsmall, and its variation within the signal range is even smaller. Figure 10 shows typical on-resistance characteristics.
Figure 10. CMOS Resistors
The resistance curve depends on the supply voltage rail, at the maximum supply voltage, the internal switchRON Change is minimal. When the supply voltage drops,RON Variation and nonlinearity will increase with it.Figure 11 compares the low voltage digiPOT at two supply levels RON
Figure 11. Switch Resistance Change vs. Supply Voltage
HD depends on a variety of factors and is therefore difficult to quantify, assuming RON, the change is 10%, the following formula can be used for approximate calculation:
In general, the nominal digiPOT resistance (RPOT), the larger the denominator, the smaller the THD.
trade off RPOTAs it increases, both distortion and bandwidth decrease, so improving one metric necessarily sacrifices the other. Therefore, circuit designers must make an appropriate trade-off between the two. This is also relevant to the design level of the device, as IC designers must balance various parameters in the design formula:
COX is an oxide capacitor
μ is the migration constant of electrons (NMOS) or holes (PMOS)
Wis the width
Lis the length
Bias From a practical point of view, we must take full advantage of each feature. When the digiPOT attenuates an AC signal through capacitive coupling, the distortion is minimal if the signal bias reaches the midpoint of the power supply. This means that the switch operates at the most linear part of the resistive characteristic.
One method is to use dual power supplies, simply ground the potentiometer to the common mode side of the power supply, and the signal will swing positive and negative.If a single power supply is required, or some digiPOTs do not support dual power supplies, another method can be used, that is, adding VDD/2 of the offset voltage to the AC signal. This offset voltage must be added to the two resistor terminals as shown in Figure 12.
Figure 12. Single Supply AC Signal Conditioning
If a signal amplifier is required, a dual-supply inverting amplifier is preferred over a non-inverting amplifier (as shown in Figure 13) for two reasons:
THD performance is better because the virtual ground of the inverting pin concentrates the switch resistance in the middle of the voltage range.
Because the inverting pin is at virtual ground, the wiper capacitor C is almost eliminatedDLSB, so that the bandwidth increase is small (the stability of the circuit must be paid attention to).
Figure 13. Adjustable Amplification Using Inverting Amplifier digiPOT
Appendix – About the AD5291/AD5292
256/1024-bit digital potentiometer with 1% accuracy, programmable 20 times The AD5291/AD5292 digital potentiometers, shown in Figure 14, have 256/1024-bit resolution.End-to-end resistances are available in 20 kΩ, 50 kΩ, and 100 kΩ with better than 1% error and a temperature coefficient ofvariable resistor35 ppm/°C in mode,voltage divider 5 ppm/°C (ratio) in mode. These devices perform the same Electronic adjustment functions as mechanical potentiometers, but in a smaller size and more reliable. Its wiper position can be adjusted via an SPI-compatible interface. Unlimited adjustments are possible before the fuse is blown and the vernier position is fixed (a process similar to applying epoxy to a mechanical adjuster). The “remove epoxy” process can be repeated up to 20 times. The AD5291/AD5292 operate from a single 9 V to 33 V supply or a dual ±9 V to ±16.5 V supply and consume 8 μW. Offered in a 14-pin TSSOP package, the operating temperature range is –40°C to +105°C (back to text)
As early as August 22, Mantianxin reported an article “Samsung foundry problems, Qualcomm’s 7nm process 5G chips are all scrapped? ” article, at that time, it was said that the Qualcomm 5G chip Snapdragon SDM7250, which was manufactured by Samsung, was completely scrapped due to a problem with the 7nm EVU process, which caused the yield rate to fail.
Although Samsung and Qualcomm later denied it, the vague statement may also be an indirect admission of the accident. Facts have also proved that in the field of foundry, Samsung will continue to be the number two for a long time.
No, the negative news of Samsung’s foundry is coming again. According to South Korean media BusinessKorea reported on the 8th. Samsung’s Giheung plant in South Korea, because the 8-inch wafer production line used contaminated equipment, resulting in defective products. A Samsung executive acknowledged the news and said the process had been restored to normal and the damage was estimated at billions of won.
However, some experts said that the scale of this loss may be much larger than Samsung’s estimates. “I know that Samsung has not calculated the exact amount of losses,” an industry source said. “The losses may far exceed the company’s estimates.”
Earlier this year, there were also reports of problems with Samsung’s first-generation 10nm (1x nm) DRAM products. This time, it is reported that the foundry business is flawed, and I am afraid that it will have a certain impact on Samsung’s reputation in the industry, not to mention that Samsung is investing heavily in the foundry business.
According to market research firm IC Insights, from 2017 to the present, Samsung’s capital expenditure in the semiconductor field is estimated to be US$65.8 billion, which is about 53% higher than Intel’s and more than double the capital expenditure of all semiconductor companies in China combined.
Samsung also recently announced that most of its investment in the fourth quarter of this year will be used in infrastructure in the storage field, and EUV 7nm production will continue to increase to strengthen its own foundry competitiveness. In mid-October, a letter of intent from Samsung was also reported, indicating that it would order 15 EUV equipment from ASML, with a total value of 18 billion yuan.
In order to surpass the foundry leader TSMC, Samsung has no heartache in spending money. Judging from the comparison of the capital expenditures of the two companies, Samsung’s attitude is very serious.
Although Samsung has invested heavily in the foundry field, after multiple accidents, Samsung’s reliability is bound to be weakened. As for whether it will affect Samsung’s goal of unifying the global semiconductor field by 2030, I don’t think it’s certain. These accidents may all be planned.
(Samsung Electronics announced this year that by 2030, it will invest 133 trillion won (about 800 billion yuan) in its logic chip (mainly referring to CPU, GPU and other computing chips) business including foundry services, in order to surpass TSMC. , become the world’s largest chip foundry, maintain its lead over Intel, and secure the throne of the world’s largest semiconductor manufacturer. And become the world’s first in CMOS and other fields.)
The content comes from Mantianxin, please indicate the source when reprinting.
This week, at the Gartner 2020 Security and Risk Management Summit held from September 14 to September 17 local time in the United States, Gartner analyst Peter Firstbrook introduced the Top 8 trends in security and risk management.
1. In the mainstream market, XDR (Extended Detection and Response) becomes an alternative to SIEM and SOAR
In the mainstream market, XDR is gradually replacing tools such as SIEM and SOAR, allowing enterprises to integrate more security tools, thereby improving security operation and maintenance efficiency. In terms of detection, XDR can integrate multiple independent security products in a unified data format and data unit, and associate the data together, so as to improve the detection efficiency of security products and detect the undetectable features of a single security product. security incident. In terms of incident response, XDR integrates multiple security tools, and security personnel will get an event alert instead of multiple security tools. In addition, after XDR integrates different devices, it will be analyzed on the basis of SOAR. For example, searching for phishing emails in the email database, automated operations can greatly improve the work efficiency of the SOC.
When enterprises choose security products, they must make strategic planning and decide whether to buy multiple products from one manufacturer, or buy different security products from multiple different manufacturers, and then integrate them together. Also, determine which products to focus on, some enterprises will focus on the data layer, while others may focus more on the application layer. Alternatively, businesses can choose to outsource XDR services.
2. Security process automation is gradually improving security operation and maintenance efficiency
Another reason why enterprises are gradually adopting XDR solutions is the automation of security processes, which is a trend in almost all security products today. Many security companies are investing in automating security processes to fill the skills gap. In the fields of data management, intrusion and attack simulation (BAS), XDR, etc., the use of automated tools can save a lot of time and improve work efficiency.
3. Heads of security and risk management will take responsibility for securing artificial intelligence (AI)
Many large organizations are doing machine learning and artificial intelligence, but rarely notice that artificial intelligence will become the target of malicious attackers. Many attackers compromise the training data in machine learning, so this is also the responsibility of the security team. For example, for an online network service provider, during data training, the website traffic suddenly surges, and malicious attackers will take the opportunity to conduct DDoS attacks.
4. The impact of the network on the entity has resulted in changes to the organizational structure, such as adding a CSO position
The development of the Internet has affected the development of brick-and-mortar stores. With the development of the Internet of Things (IoT) and the digitization of manufacturing plants, security is no longer just about ensuring physical security and information security as in the past. Enterprises need to be reorganized, and a leader needs to be appointed to manage information technology security, operation and maintenance technology security, product/service management security, supply chain security, etc., through a central console to achieve centralized management and control of all aspects.
5. Trust and security teams start protecting consumers’ digital boundaries
Another development is that trust and safety teams are now emerging, built to protect consumers’ digital boundaries. Digital boundaries refer to all boundaries where consumers interact with the corporate environment, including websites, call centers, social media, and more.
6. Privacy is increasingly becoming an influential independent discipline affecting every aspect of an organization
Organizations that used to be less focused on privacy issues are now stepping up their privacy protections, investing four times as much in privacy because they fear financial loss, customer churn, and reputation damage, etc.
7. SASE integrates traditional LAN network security functions with WAN comprehensive capabilities, bringing major changes to network security
In the past, all users and all applications used the LAN, therefore, the use of firewalls, intrusion detection systems (IDS) in their own network environment can control network access. But now, many applications are no longer within the scope of the LAN, such as infrastructure as a service (IaaS), software as a service (SaaS), application as a service (APaaS), users and applications are no longer under the control of the data center . So, how can businesses achieve data visibility? SASE brings together Network as a Service (SD-WAN, CDN, Firewall) and Network Security as a Service (Cloud Security Proxy, Cloud SWG, DNS) into a unified platform. Enterprises are advised to rethink WAN design and integrate network security services, including web gateways, cloud access security proxies, firewalls, sandboxes, ZTNA, and more.
8. Cloud workload protection is moving in a new, comprehensive direction
Another important area of development is cloud workload protection, which is rapidly moving in a new comprehensive direction, from cloud workload development to production. Building an application in the cloud is very different from building a model locally. The cloud is usually built in an agile way, using containers, and supports building custom applications. All of this happens over the internet. This requires understanding the networking of applications and the storage of credentials, which is very complex to effectively manage cloud workloads.
In this regard, enterprises need to reconsider server security solutions, not just use existing security solutions to meet new security challenges. Be aware that the security challenges faced by cloud workloads are different and require the adoption of new security services. In this regard, the first consideration is visibility and security controls. For example, it is necessary to clearly know where the application is and where the dependencies are, so that security controls can be strengthened in a targeted manner. Additionally, risk configurations need to be fixed and a DevSecOps approach taken to secure applications throughout the development pipeline. At the same time, live testing is performed, where the application is tested in real time before it goes into production.
In 2020, the company’s intelligent connected vehicle business achieved operating income of 770 million yuan, and about 626 million yuan of revenue came from software development and technical services. The 144 million yuan is from software licensing and other income. A year-on-year increase of 60.09%. The five-year (2016-2020) compound annual growth rate is as high as 102%.
It is understood that as early as 2013, Thundersoft began to invest heavily in the layout of the new generation of intelligent networked vehicle business. The intelligent networked vehicle platform products launched by the company break through the traditional industry boundaries through “software” and lead the development of the industry. In recent years, the proportion of ICV business revenue in the company’s total business revenue has also increased year by year, from 5.45% in 2016 to 29.31% in 2020.
In fact, in Thundersoft’s business layout, there are also intelligent software business accounting for 44.22% of revenue and intelligent Internet of Things business accounting for 26.47%, both of which will grow to varying degrees in 2020.
According to public information, Thundersoft has been deeply involved in the field of intelligent operating systems for 12 years. It is the world’s leading full-stack operating system technology company. It has more than 8,000 operating system engineers and focuses on operating system technology. , Smartphone industry empowerment. At present, Thundersoft has built a huge first-mover advantage and deep technical barriers in the field of intelligent operating system technology.
At present, it has more than 200 intelligent and connected car customers around the world, and has cooperated with leading car manufacturers such as GAC, SAIC, FAW, Ideal, Volkswagen, GM, and Toyota. In March and September 2020, Thundersoft entered into cooperation with GAC Research Institute and SAIC Zero Bundle respectively to jointly build a software and application innovation base and the world’s leading software platform for intelligent connected vehicles.
In the intelligent industry chain, Thundersoft connects both ends up and down. One end is to connect all partners in the industry chain, including chip manufacturers, OS manufacturers, Internet manufacturers, AI and cloud manufacturers, etc. The other end connects mobile phone manufacturers, car manufacturers, Tier 1, IoT manufacturers, etc., to build a mesh ecosystem for the industry. Thundersoft said that the company is located in a strategic position in the industry chain, and the growth of any party will bring about the growth of the company’s business.
Taking the ICV business as an example, the operating system platform products and software IP have brought the traffic portal of the ICV era to Thundersoft. With the successive launch of research models, the ICV business will continue to be Growing rapidly. In 2020, Thunderbolt’s intelligent networked vehicle business achieved operating income of 770 million yuan, an increase of 60.09% over the same period of the previous year; of which software development and technical service income was 626 million yuan, and software licensing income was 144 million yuan. than 20%. The five-year (2016-2020) compound annual growth rate is as high as 102%.
Take Rightware’s Kanzi again. Kanzi is a tool set for HMI development for smart car cockpits that can provide digital instrumentation, central control, entertainment and control screens. With Kanzi’s unique modular architecture and flexible workflow, designers can unleash their creativity and create a smooth user experience, complete the visual construction of 3D dynamic interfaces in one step, and seamlessly connect with engineers, reducing development costs. At the same time speed up time to market. At present, more than 50+ brands in the world choose Kanzi as the HMI development tool. It has enabled more than 100 models, and more than 30 million vehicles worldwide use Kanzi technology. In the future, KANZI will help more partners to create a first-class human-computer interaction experience.
In addition, Thundersoft has more than 200 ICV customers around the world, with customers all over the world. In the context of software-defined vehicles, Thundersoft has played an increasingly important role as a neutral and open intelligent operating system manufacturer, providing customers with extensive and profound value.
In March 2020, Thundersoft and Guangzhou Automobile Research Institute announced the establishment of the “Guangzhou Automobile Research Institute – Thundersoft Intelligent Vehicle Software Technology Joint Innovation Center”, and the two parties will work together to create a base for software and application innovation. In September 2020, Thundersoft signed a strategic cooperation agreement with SAIC Motor Group Co., Ltd. Zero Bundle Software Branch. The two parties will establish a long-term and stable in-depth cooperative relationship and jointly build the world’s leading software platform for intelligent networked vehicles.
In March 2021, Human Express and Thundersoft officially signed a cooperation agreement to establish a joint venture company to focus on the development of automotive intelligent systems and software. system, leading the development and upgrading of the intelligent automobile industry.
In April 2021, the world’s first automotive SOA developer conference hosted by SAIC was unveiled. Chuangda has become an important ecological partner of SAIC Zero Beam SOA developer platform, working together to promote industrial transformation.
Based on Thundersoft’s 2020 annual report, Soochow Securities and Huatai Securities both maintained their buy rating on Thundersoft (300496.SZ). The reasons for the rating mainly include: 1) the three core businesses are going hand in hand, and the company is optimistic about the company’s high growth; 2) the core competitiveness is highlighted, and the operating efficiency is continuously improving; 3) technology + ecology, and further expand the depth of technology frontier.
The ROHM Group owns various wireless communication technologies, including Bluetooth and ZigBee led by wireless LAN, as well as specific low-power wireless technologies for the 920MHz frequency band opened in Japan in July 2012.
Through the technology integration with LAPIS semiconductor, a group company, ROHM has product advantages ranging from wireless communication ICs to modules, and provides communication ICs and modules that fully utilize the radio characteristics of various communication standards in accordance with customer needs. Especially for wireless communication ICs, LAPIS Semiconductor is proud of its low-power RF-CMOSNote1Technology and high performance MODEMNote2technology to achieve the industry’s highest level of low power consumption and wireless performance, which is also a major feature of this type of product.
The “High Frequency components and Module Technology Series” is divided into two phases. This issue is the first issue, and will introduce the “920MHz frequency band specific low-power wireless communication module” from the many wireless communication ICs and module products owned by ROHM. The second phase will also be launched in the near future, introducing “wireless LAN module technology”, so stay tuned!
In recent years, awareness of energy conservation has been rising in various fields, and countries are expanding their investment in the efficient use of energy. Among them, in the residential area, the attention of HEMS (Home Energy Management System), which monitors the power supply and demand between devices through network connection, and then effectively controls the devices, has been increasing. In order to “visualize” the power required for energy management, more advanced energy management and control systems that often use smart touch and the like are expected.
Against this background, Japan opened the 920 MHz band in July 2012, which is a radio frequency band that does not easily interfere with existing radio waves, has low power consumption, and enables long-distance data communication. Table 1 below summarizes the characteristics of ZigBee and wireless LAN in the 2.4GHz frequency band, as well as the 400MHz and 920MHz frequency bands for specific low-power wireless. 920MHz has excellent radio wave coupling properties compared to 2.4GHz using ZigBee and wireless LAN, so stable communication can be ensured even in places with walls and obstacles. When used at home, wireless devices such as microwave ovens and wireless mice use 2.4GHz, and the radio waves are very mixed. In contrast, the 920MHz band is less prone to radio interference. In addition, the occupied frequency range of the 400MHz frequency band, which is also a specific low-power wireless radio, is narrow, so the communication speed is slow. To sum up, it can be said that the 920MHz frequency band is the most suitable frequency band for HEMS (Figure 1).
In addition, the 900MHz frequency band has been used in the United States, China, South Korea, and Australia, and Europe is also studying the opening up.
[表1] Wireless performance comparison
[图1] Comparison of Wireless Methods for HEMS
Roma920MHzFrequency band specific low power wireless module technology
＜Low power consumption＞
ROHM developed the 920MHz band specific low-power wireless module “BP3596” for HEMS (Figure 2). The biggest feature of this product is the industry’s top low power consumption, which is achieved by the “ML7396B” wireless communication IC “ML7396B”, which is known for its low power consumption by LAPIS Semiconductor, a subsidiary of the ROHM Group. It can be built into various devices such as smart touch products and home appliances, and can build a low-power wireless network. “Low power consumption” is very important for devices such as sensor devices, where it is difficult to supply AC power. The cost of battery replacement for battery-powered devices is too high, so there is an urgent need for no battery replacement for about 10 years. Although battery capacities vary, ROHM’s 920MHz band-specific low-power wireless modules have excellent low-power consumption performance, so even battery-operated devices can be used for 10 years without battery replacement.
Built-in chip antenna, can be used without high frequency design. When installed in a device with a metal casing, the metal casing acts as a shield against radio waves, resulting in no communication. The product has a built-in antenna connector, and communication can be ensured by simply connecting an external antenna to the antenna connector.
＜Acquired radio law certification＞
It has been certified by Japan’s domestic radio law, so it can be used as a wireless device immediately after being installed in the whole machine without the need for a wireless communication test. Customers who do not have high-frequency circuit design capabilities and wireless characteristic measurement devices can also use it easily.
The 16-bit serial number used in the network is marked on the label. A QR code is also printed on the label, and the QR code contains the serial number information. When assembled into the machine, read the QR code output label to easily mark the serial number on the housing.
The EEPROM is built into the module, and not only the serial number but also the adjustment value of the output power is written. Therefore, it can be used without complicated adjustment of the wireless device.
[图2] BP3596 Dimensions
＜Easy connection of hardware＞
When the microcontroller for RF control is connected to the RFIC, the SPI (5pin) and EEPROM pass through the I2C(2pin), GPIO connection. The wiring diagram with the microcontroller for RF control is shown in Figure 3. It can be seen that it can be easily connected with a small number of wires.
[图3] Microcontroller Wiring Diagram for RF Control
＜Supported radio frequency band of each country＞
The 900MHz frequency band is expected to become a frequency band that can be used by all countries in the world. The United States, China, South Korea, and Australia have adopted the 900MHz frequency band as a sub-GHz frequency band that does not require application, and international cooperation in frequency allocation has made progress. ROHM’s BP3596 can respond to the radio frequency band of each country by adjusting the module (the radio wave specification of each country is negotiated separately).
BP3596how to use
BP3596 is a module covering to the physical layer. Therefore, when using it, the client needs to prepare a higher-level protocol than the MAC layer. An example of the protocol stack configuration when used in home appliances is shown in Figure 4.
The structure of the protocol stack that satisfies ECHONET Lite is shown in Figure 4, which is connected to the whole machine through BP3596 and the microcontroller board. As long as such a protocol stack is provided, the change of the main body on the host side can be minimized, so that a specific low-power wireless radio in the 920MHz band can be installed. Of course, it can also be directly stored in the HOST form.
[图4] Protocol stack configuration example
A schematic diagram used in an actual house is shown in Figure 5. This product can realize the great role of HEMS, namely “visualization” and “effective control” of power supply and demand. Each terminal in the home is installed with a specific low-power wireless module in the 920MHz frequency band, and networking is realized through a specific low-power wireless.It integrates the power supply and demand information of each device into the home gatewayNote3(Home Gate Way), the monitor screen displays the supply and demand situation, realizes the “visualization” of power, and comprehensively manages the equipment through the home gateway to effectively control the equipment.
Not only that, but the power status can be checked via the network from the home gateway via the wireless LAN.
[图5] Example of HEMS configuration
from now on
ROHM is advancing the development of specific low-power wireless modules with built-in wireless LAN and API interchangeable protocol stacks, taking advantage of the technology accumulation of wireless LAN modules (BP3591, etc.) that have already been mass-produced (Figure 6). Customers who have done wireless LAN development in the past can use this resource to greatly speed up development.
[图6] Conceptual Outlook for a Specific Low-Power Wireless Module with Built-in Protocol Stack
(In the upcoming “Series II”, we will focus on the wireless LAN module (BP3591/BP3580, etc.) technology in the picture, so stay tuned.)
In the future, ROHM will continue to provide customers with easier-to-use modules. By combining ROHM’s sensors with specific low-power wireless modules in the 920MHz frequency band, we will develop a product that not only saves energy, but also provides a more convenient, more comfortable, more secure, and safer life. products and make more contributions to mankind.
Note 1: CMOS
CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor), complementary metal oxide semiconductor, a voltage-controlled amplifier device, is the basic unit of CMOS digital integrated circuits.
Note 2: MODEM
The English name of the modem. A general term for a modulator and a demodulator combined.
Note 3: Home Gateway
A home gateway is a device that connects multiple computers to the Internet using a single Internet connection. Clients rely on the home gateway to provide Internet access.
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December 4, 2019 – Mouser Electronics, an authorized global distributor of Electroniccomponents focused on introducing new products, announced the immediate distribution of ON semiconductor’s Strata Developer Studio™ and related development boards. Strata Developer Studio is a secure, cloud-connected development platform that enables engineers to quickly and easily use ON Semiconductor evaluation boards and reference design kits and get the information they need for evaluation or design.
ON Semiconductor’s Strata Developer Studio acts as the user interface for the development board, giving the user direct control over configuration parameters and visual feedback on functionality, while also downloading all the latest documentation, product information, design and application notes, and reference design files directly to the user desktop.
Strata Developer Studio automatically recognizes Strata-enabled development boards when connected to a host computer. Development boards that currently support Strata include USB Type-C and PD boards, multi-function logic gate solutions, LED drivers, and power devices such as low dropout (LDO) regulators, DC/DC regulators, and adaptive turn-on time ( AOT) step-down converter. In lab environments where Wi-Fi is unavailable, the platform can run offline; but when connected to the cloud, the Strata environment can automatically update over-the-air, ensuring materials are up-to-date and notifying developers when changes occur.
Strata Developer Studio connects to the company’s Software-as-a-Service (SaaS) platform as a Microsoft-signed application. It uses an encrypted database compliant with the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) for secure authentication, data transfer and complete information control. All information and security follows the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) cybersecurity guidelines.
Mouser Electronics has a rich product line and considerate customer service, and actively introduces new technologies and new products to meet the various needs of design engineers and purchasers. We stock a vast inventory of new electronic components to support our customers’ next-generation design projects. The Mouser website Mouser.cn not only has a variety of advanced search tools to help users quickly understand product availability, but the website is continuously updated to continuously optimize the user experience. In addition, the Mouser website provides a wealth of resources such as data sheets, vendor-specific reference designs, application notes, technical design information, and engineering tools.
About Mouser Electronics
Mouser Electronics, a Berkshire Hathaway company, is an award-winning authorized distributor of electronic components dedicated to delivering products to design engineers and buyers in an efficient manner New products from wire manufacturers. As a global distributor, our website mouser.cn provides multi-language and multi-currency transaction support, distributing more than 5 million products from more than 800 manufacturers. We provide our customers with attentive service through 27 customer support centers around the world. For more information, please visit: http://www.mouser.cn.
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