According to the website of the Ministry of Commerce, on December 18, 2020, Tela Innovations of the United States filed an application with the United States International Trade Commission (ITC) in accordance with Section 337 of the United States Tariff Act of 1930, accusing it of exporting to the United States, importing in the United States or Certain integrated circuits sold in the United States and their downstream products (Certain Integrated Circuits and Products Containing the Same) infringe its patent rights, request a Section 337 investigation, and issue a limited exclusion order and a restraining order. Lenovo Group is involved in the case.
A few days ago, NavInfo announced that the first tire pressure monitoring sensor chip AC5111, designed by its automotive Electronic chip design company Jiefa Technology, has been officially mass-produced. It is reported that the tire pressure monitoring sensor chip has received tens of thousands of mass production orders.
The tire pressure monitoring sensor chip is mainly used for real-time monitoring of tire pressure during driving, and early warning of tire leakage and low pressure to ensure driving safety. According to statistics, 70% of highway traffic accidents in China are related to tire blowouts. In order to reduce the accident rate, in 2013, the National Standards Committee issued the “Performance Requirements and Test Methods for Passenger Car Tire Pressure Monitoring System”, pointing out that from January 1, 2020, all passenger cars in production will be forced to install tire pressure Monitoring System.
At present, most of the tire pressure monitoring sensor chip manufacturers in the industry are foreign companies, such as Infineon, Freescale, NXP, etc. Infineon is recognized as one of the best manufacturers in this field. Due to the weak strength of my country’s semiconductor industry, the chip market is mostly controlled by foreign companies, while domestic companies mainly focus on tire pressure monitoring system integration. The main companies include Baolong Technology, Iron General, and Lianchuang Electronics.
Jiefa Technology just saw the huge market opportunity for tire pressure monitoring chips, and hopes to gradually realize the autonomy of domestic chips through the AC5111 chip. According to official information, Jiefa Technology’s AC5111 chip consists of six functions: microprocessor (MCU), air pressure sensor, temperature detection, acceleration sensor, high-frequency radio frequency technology and low-frequency radio frequency technology. AC5111 is Jiefa Technology’s first product line in the field of MEMS chips. This chip will be produced by MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical Systems) foundry X-FAB, which is also the world’s top foundry. . In the future, Jiefa Technology’s new products such as smart cockpit chips, ADAS (advanced driver assistance system) chips, and other automotive MEMS sensor chips will also be introduced to the market one after another.
This morning, Huawei Connect 2020 opened in Shanghai on September 23. As a global annual flagship event for the ICT industry, the Connectivity Conference has always been a platform for Huawei to announce major strategies.
“As we all know, Huawei is encountering great difficulties. The continuous suppression by the United States and other countries has brought a lot of pressure to our operations. Survival is our main line,” said Guo Ping, Huawei’s rotating chairman. “Dumas once said that all the wisdom of human beings are contained in these two words: waiting and hope. We see that the ICT industry is facing huge development opportunities, and the government and enterprises are fully entering into digitization and intelligence. Huawei hopes to cooperate with Partner to open a new chapter together.”
The Full Connect Conference over the years has always been an opportunity for Huawei to announce a new ecological strategy. In 2016, Huawei looked forward to the vision of an intelligent society and called for building a Costa Rica-style ecosystem with global partners; in 2017, it clarified its goal of becoming one of the five global clouds; in 2018, it released its AI strategy; Computing strategies are described.
In 2020, with the completion of large-scale deployment of 5G around the world, five technologies and five opportunities of connection, cloud, AI, computing and industry applications will be brought together in an unprecedented way. New value in the industry”. Huawei emphasizes that it will focus on applying ICT technology to all walks of life, and cooperate with partners to provide scenario-based solutions to help enterprises achieve business success and the government to achieve the goals of prospering, benefiting the people, and good governance.
Guo Ping, Rotating Chairman of Huawei, delivered a speech at the Full Connect Conference.
Huawei believes that in 2020, when the government and traditional enterprises are fully digitalized and intelligent, the ICT industry is facing huge development opportunities. Huawei hopes to open a new chapter with partners in this process.
Guo Ping shared the advanced practice of Huawei’s intelligent technology in enterprises, industrial parks and smart cities, and showed how to provide scenario-based solutions through the combination of ICT technology and industry knowledge, which can truly create the main business of the government and enterprises. value. In the next stage, Huawei’s focus is to work with partners to apply ICT technology to all walks of life, help enterprises achieve business success, and help governments achieve business development, benefit the people, and good governance.
Huawei continues to invest in key businesses. In the field of connectivity, Huawei has put forward the concept of intelligent connectivity to create a ubiquitous gigabit, deterministic experience, and hyper-automated network, enabling the intelligent upgrade of government and enterprises; in the field of computing, Huawei is committed to providing customers with diverse computing power , adopts the design of software and hardware decoupling to adapt to different processors such as X86 and Kunpeng; in the field of cloud services, Huawei Cloud currently has 23 regions around the world and has developed more than 1.5 million developers; in the field of AI, Huawei Committed to applying AI to the main business systems of government and enterprises, and building the core competitiveness of AI systems through knowledge-driven and data-driven.
“How to realize the digitalization of the scene mainly depends on three key elements. The first is the technology, and it is necessary to be good at integrating various ICT technologies with the core business,” said Peng Zhongyang, Huawei Director and President of the Enterprise BG. “The second is to understand the industry, to be in awe of the industry, and to have an in-depth insight into the industry. The last is real practice. The digitization of the scene is not just talk on paper, but the unity of knowledge and action, to explore and create in practice.”
The communication network realizes the connection between people; in the new digital era, through the five-machine collaboration of connection, cloud, computing, AI, and application, it realizes the all-round and multi-level connection of people, things and information.
At the conference, Huawei listed a large number of cases of technology implementation: in the coal mining industry, Huawei’s 5-machine collaboration has demonstrated the prospect of digital transformation. The company has transformed more than 10 business scenarios of “2 sides + 5 streams” in coal mines, and promoted the digitization and intelligence of the mine’s entire business by digitizing the mine infrastructure. Massive data flow replaces the operation process of many workers in the mine, and AI-driven machines dig coal intelligently. The remote control of the mine is realized, the labor efficiency is doubled, and it is safer and more controllable, allowing more miners to “dig coal in suits, ties, and coffee”.
Peng Zhongyang, Director of Huawei and President of Enterprise BG, was at the meeting.
The essence of business in the digital age is to make a bigger cake, a positive-sum game, not a zero-sum game. Huawei hopes that the entire industry can build a “digital ecological cube” from three dimensions, aiming at the future of digitalization and digging deeply into the unsatisfied scene demands of various industries. This is the premise of making the cake right. Secondly, it is necessary to gather N kinds of ability partners, and each has their own expertise. This is the basis for making a bigger cake. Finally, it is necessary to create N kinds of cooperation methods and business models to achieve symbiosis, co-creation and sharing. This is the eternal power source of making the cake bigger.
Wisdom and intelligence are profoundly changing the global innovation landscape and economic structure, as well as changing production, lifestyle and industrial organization models. Huawei said that in the past 30 years of globalization practice, it has gradually forged 68 digital scenarios, covering research and development, manufacturing, global marketing, finance and other fields.
For people, the most concerning thing about Huawei right now is the supply of chips. Both the AI and intelligent businesses advocated by Huawei require chips. Because of the US ban, there has been some news that Huawei has encountered resistance in the supply chain. At the same time, AMD and Intel have announced that they have obtained a license from the US government. Supply chips to Huawei.
At the Fully Connected Conference, Huawei responded to some questions. “We are still evaluating the specific data on the impact of the U.S. ban on Huawei’s chip supply,” Guo Ping said. “In terms of to B business, our current chip reserves are sufficient. In terms of mobile phone chips, since Huawei consumes hundreds of millions of mobile phone chips every year, we are actively looking for ways. We know that many American companies are also applying for export licenses from the US government. We believe that the opportunities in the ICT industry far outweigh the competition. The US ban not only affected Huawei, but also caused losses to companies in Japan, the US and other countries and regions. Huawei will continue to adhere to a globalized industrial strategy.”
It has also recently been reported that Qualcomm is applying to the US government for a license to supply Huawei. Guo Ping said that Qualcomm has always been an important partner of Huawei. In the past ten years, Huawei has been purchasing Qualcomm chips, and Huawei is happy to use Qualcomm chips to manufacture mobile phones. On the other hand, Huawei has strong chip design capabilities, and is also willing to help other partners to jointly improve manufacturing, materials and other technologies in the chip production process, “helping them is also helping Huawei itself.”
Huawei said the ban would not affect the company’s R&D investment in chips. “We have 700 million users, and we will continue to innovate at the operating system, HMS and other levels to serve users well. The current situation has strengthened Huawei’s determination to build HMS, but the purpose of the ecosystem is to serve more users, it must It is open, and we hope to cooperate with more manufacturers around the world to help developers better serve users,” said Zhang Ping’an, President of Huawei’s Consumer Business Cloud Service.
Connectivity, computing, cloud and AI technologies are like electricity more than 100 years ago, and industrial applications are like household appliances and industrial electrification. At the end of his speech, Guo Ping extended an invitation to all industry partners: “We hope to become the infrastructure of the new era and help our partners to do “electrification”. Let’s work together to create value for customers and achieve business success together.”
How to quickly build an image search engine?
Amazon AWS solution architect Qiu Yuejun will bring a live coding on September 24th, using Amazon Elasticsearch Service to build a graph search application from scratch, including using Amazon SageMaker to extract feature vectors from images , use Amazon Elasticsearch for feature vector search, and use AWS Amplify to quickly build applications.
/a>STB” title=”STB”>STB” title=”STB”>STB and Blu-ray Player. This article introduces the main features of AK4710, typical connection diagram and evaluation board AKD4710 function, block diagram, and circuit diagram and component layout.
The AK4710/11’audio block accepts either single-ended or differential input from an external audio DAC. It is very flexible, with integrated volume controls that range from -6dB to +24dB for gain control. The video block includes a clamp circuit, video filters, video switches and a 75-ohm video line driver, realizing simple and low cost system construction
The AK4710/11 supports fast and slow video blanking, compatible with the European SCART standard, making the AK4710/11 ideal for a full spectrum of European digital AV products. The AK4710 is housed in a 32-pin QFN package, and the AK4711 is housed in a 36-pin QFN package.
AK4710 main features:
THD+N: −92dB (@2Vrms)
Dynamic Range: 96dB (@2Vrms, A-weighted)
Full Differential or Single-ended input for Decoder DAC
Stereo Output for TV SCART and CINCH (2Vrms)
Ground-Referenced Output Eliminates
DC-Blocking Capacitor and Mute Circuit
Integrated LPF: –40dB@27MHz
6dB Gain for Outputs
5ch 75ohm driver
4ch for SCART: CVBS/Y, R/C, G, B
1ch for CINCH: CVBS
Y/Pb/Pr Option (to 6MHz)
SCART pin#16(Fast Blanking), pin#8(Slow Blanking) Output Control
3.3V+/−5% and 12V+/−5%
Low Power Dissipation / Low Power Standby Mode
32pin QFN (0.4mm pitch)
Figure 1. Block diagram of the audio part of the AK4710
Figure 2. Block diagram of the video part of the AK4710
Figure 3. AK4710 Video Blanking Block Diagram
Figure 4. Typical connection diagram of AK4710
Evaluation Board AKD4710
AKD4710 is an evaluation board for quickly evaluating the AK4710, Single SCART Driver.Evaluation requires audio/video analog analyzers/generators and a power supply.
Evaluation Board AKD4710 Features:
• RCA connectors for analog audio output
• XLR connectors for analog audio input
• RCA connectors for SD video input/output
• USB connector for serial control interface
Figure 5. Block Diagram of Evaluation Board AKD4710
Figure 5. Evaluation Board AKD4710 Circuit Diagram (1)
Figure 6. Evaluation Board AKD4710 Circuit Diagram (2)
Figure 7. Evaluation Board AKD4710 Circuit Diagram (3)
Figure 8. Evaluation Board AKD4710 Circuit Diagram (4)
Figure 9. Evaluation Board AKD4710 Component Layout
For details, see:
In order to implement national strategies such as Made in China 2025, the integrated development of manufacturing and the Internet, and big data, grasp the strategic opportunity period for in-depth adjustment of new generation information technology, enhance the core competitiveness of the smart sensor industry, and ensure national information security, November 23, 2017 The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology formulated the “Three-Year Action Guidelines for the Smart Sensor Industry (2017-2019)” in accordance with the requirements of the “National Integrated Circuit Industry Development Promotion Outline” and in combination with the “Action Plan for Accelerating the Development of the Sensor and Intelligent Instrumentation Industry” . The “Action Guide” supports the construction of national and provincial intelligent sensor innovation centers, relying on scientific research institutes and key enterprises with good basic conditions to jointly establish independent legal entities in the form of capital or intellectual property rights, forming a group of intellectual property and core The key technology of competitiveness has succeeded, a group of new compound talents have been cultivated, and the core device design and manufacturing technology has reached the international level.
As one of the three major sensor R&D and manufacturing bases in China, Bengbu has a number of intelligent sensor R&D, design and manufacturing enterprises, such as the No. 214 Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry, Xi Magnetic Technology, and North Core Dynamics, and has established a MEMS joint engineering laboratory. Approved major R&D projects above the provincial level, and established the Anhui Intelligent Sensor Industry Innovation Alliance.
Following the trend, relying on the platform of “Anhui Intelligent Sensor Manufacturing Innovation Center”, in November 2019, led by the No. 214 Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry, in conjunction with the Department of Precision Instruments of Tsinghua University, SAIC Group Technology Center, and Suzhou Biomedical Sciences of the Chinese Academy of Sciences Engineering Technology Research Institute, Anhui Heli Group Corporation, Anhui Innolink Microsystems Co., Ltd., Hefei Micro-Nano Sensing Technology Co., Ltd., Anhui Auf Medical Equipment Technology Co., Ltd., Anhui Hongshi Automation Equipment Co., Ltd., Hangzhou Chi Orange Digital Technology Co., Ltd. and other units jointly established the “Intelligent Sensor Manufacturing Innovation Alliance (Center)”.
According to the relevant person from the China Ordnance Industry No. 214 Research Institute, the governing unit of the Smart Sensor Manufacturing Innovation Alliance, the smart sensor industry is a basic industry for national economic and social development, and the mutual support with the integrated circuit industry determines the country’s core competitiveness. and international status. In the R&D system of smart sensors in my country, each R&D institution has been in a situation of independent management for a long time, and repeated research is not uncommon, which not only wastes resources, but also prolongs the R&D cycle of new technologies and reduces the economic and social benefits that new technologies can produce. The establishment of the innovation alliance can gather resources from all parties, optimize the allocation of resources, establish a rapid response mechanism for research and development, attract high-end talents at home and abroad, maximize the use of limited resources to produce maximum benefits, and strengthen industry-university-research cooperation. Completely breaking the technical blockade of my country’s smart sensor field by western countries, it will play a huge role in promoting the development of my country’s sensor core technology, will further enhance the smart sensor innovation capability of Anhui Province and even the country, and further enhance the international competitiveness of my country’s core technology. Realize the autonomous control of intelligent sensors.
Since the establishment of the Smart Sensor Manufacturing Innovation Alliance more than a year ago, what major progress has been made? The Core Thought Research Institute made a special trip to visit the alliance to obtain first-hand information.
Since its establishment in 2019, the Innovation Alliance has been centered on the 214th Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry, relying on the institute’s 6-inch 0.5μm semiconductor process line, 6-inch MEMS process line, optoelectronic device process platform, silicon-based terahertz IMPATT (avalanche) Diode) chip process platform, Electronic module and component SMT (surface assembly technology) process platform, H-class thick film hybrid integrated circuit military standard line, 8-inch LTCC production line seven process platforms and process capabilities and the design capabilities of related companies in the alliance, combined with The alliance’s industrial focus adjusts the layout, promotes the development of the MEMS smart sensor industry as a strategic emerging industry, and combines the technical characteristics of the alliance to determine the high-performance inertial devices, optical communication devices, infrared temperature sensors, gas sensors, micro-flow sensors, pressure sensors. And all kinds of intelligent sensor fields are the development direction of key industries. Benchmarking the international advanced technology, while giving full play to the ability of independent innovation, four sets of characteristic MEMS bulk silicon process systems have been established, and the alliance’s MEMS research and development capabilities and industrialization capabilities have been continuously improved, and efforts have been made to build a domestic advanced MEMS smart sensor industry base.
For more than a year, the Innovation Alliance has mainly expanded applications in five fields:
First, high-performance MEMS devices and components for artificial intelligence and unmanned systems: autonomously controllable MEMS inertial devices (gyroscopes, accelerometers) and components have formed an absolute leading position in the domestic high-end MEMS inertial device market and can be widely used In the field of drones and smart cars;
The second is the field of 5G communication and the Internet of Things, including MEMS optical components, MEMS actuators, and radio frequency MEMS devices: silicon-based filters, power dividers, antennas and other products have been developed, and related products have industrialization capabilities, relying on 5G communication. The field has huge market prospects. Combined with the current alliance’s mature MEMS device wafer processing, packaging and testing as an integrated process platform, while improving the localization level of my country’s optical communication core devices, it will take the lead in occupying the strategic commanding heights of the 5G optical communication field;
The third is the field of MEMS sensors for smart equipment: mainly used in industrial monitoring, smart mobile terminals, wearable devices and other fields;
The fourth is the field of high-end medical equipment: the outbreak of the new crown pneumonia in 2020, the response to the epidemic highlights the need to speed up the completion of the shortcomings of high-end medical equipment, accelerate the research on core technologies, break through the technical bottlenecks, and realize the independent control of core components for medical equipment;
The fifth is the field of MEMS devices for smart homes: with the rapid development of the Internet of Things, gas sensors, array infrared temperature sensors, and pressure sensors used in the field of smart homes have been jointly developed and realized 6 product series.
Major breakthroughs in technological innovation
The Innovation Alliance adheres to the technological innovation system of deep integration of production, education and research, and has added nearly ten major scientific research projects at the provincial and national levels in the field of smart sensor technology, involving MEMS, EMCCD, SOC, microwave and millimeter wave, digital-to-analog conversion, power devices, etc. For example, the 214th Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry, a member of the alliance, has successively won a number of major national, provincial and ministerial scientific research projects. Expand the alliance’s main technologies and products to the automotive field, and at the same time expand the alliance’s vertical scientific research to the key project areas of the National Development and Reform Commission; the “Nuclear High Base” major project jointly declared with Tsinghua University has been extended from the “13th Five-Year Plan” to the “14th Five-Year Plan”. ; The “Digital diagnosis and treatment equipment research and development” project in cooperation with the Suzhou Institute of Biomedical Engineering and Technology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences has been successfully approved as a key research and development plan by the Ministry of Science and Technology. For more than a year, the alliance member units have authorized more than 30 invention patents and published 15 core journal papers.
In terms of key technologies, through technological innovation, cultivating core technologies, relying on the nuclear high-based national major science and technology special projects, we have overcome a series of key technologies that plague the MEMS industry: such as 6-inch SOI bulk silicon MEMS process lines in MEMS microstructure key dimensions processing The precision is better than 0.3μm, the repeatability is better than 0.5μm, and the processing verticality is better than 90°±0.1°; in terms of EMCCD, with the independent EMCCD device as the core, it has completed the nationalized EMCCD search with completely independent intellectual property rights With the development of tracking system, by optimizing the component structure, improving the ability of component video image acquisition and transmission and video image processing, EMCCD process development and product engineering have made great progress; in terms of LTCC devices, it has a complete LTCC production line and group packaging production line , established a multi-material, multi-interface system process, special-shaped multi-cavity structure, high-density integration, LTCC radio frequency devices, components and micro-system manufacturing technology platform, at the leading domestic level.
In terms of basic technology, the anti-overload capability of gyroscope and acceleration has reached more than 18500g, reaching the domestic leading level; developed high-reliability silicon-silicon direct bonding, eutectic bonding, glass paste bonding, electrostatic bonding and thermocompression bonding technology, forming the most complete bonding process technology in China, and is the only domestic enterprise with two silicon-silicon bonding processes; developed unequal-height comb tooth etching technology, reaching the domestic leading level; completed some 3D advanced microsystems The single process technology of integrated manufacturing has laid the foundation for the research and development of microsystem products.
Accelerate the pace of industrialization development
The alliance adheres to the policy of “demand traction, focus on the main business, emancipation of the mind, and win-win cooperation”, unswervingly cooperate with foreign countries, expand cooperation resources, and encourage multiple channels to establish scientific research and industry with universities, research institutes, and enterprises within and outside the alliance. Cooperation to establish a close industrial cooperation ecological chain. Focusing closely on MEMS, sensors and other industries, put the promotion of the industrialization of MEMS devices in the first place, and strive to achieve a national level of MEMS professional technology by the end of 2022, tracking in cutting-edge fields, and industrial development. Quality development.
Based on the 6-inch MEMS process platform and the 6-inch 0.5μm semiconductor process platform of the 214th Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry, six major product directions are formed:
(1) MEMS inertial devices: Co-designed and jointly developed with Innolink, a member of the alliance, 9 MEMS gyroscopes, 7 MEMS accelerometers, 5 micro-inertial measurement modules and other series of shelf products have been formed, and the core indicators have been completed. Covering similar foreign products, it can be used in drone attitude measurement, intelligent robot-assisted navigation, bridge health detection and diagnosis and other fields.
(2) Optical MEMS devices: Co-designed and jointly developed 9 optical MEMSM micromirror products including tunable optical attenuators, optical switches, and tunable optical filters with the alliance member company Zhongke Mi Micro Co., Ltd., 3 A MEMS scanning mirror, during the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, it will increase the cooperation and development of a series of products in the fields of optical communication, optical sensing, optical Display, and lidar;
(3) MEMS infrared temperature sensor: Through the joint design and joint development with the alliance member units Hefei Micronano Company and Suzhou Rongqi Company, three types of MEMS temperature sensor products, two types of unit type and array type, have been formed. Temperature sensors are highly flexible and have the advantages of testing moving targets. The “14th Five-Year Plan” will focus on increasing product iteration and industrialization in industries such as smart home and healthcare;
(4) MEMS gas sensor: Co-designed and jointly developed with Hefei Micro-Nano Company, a member unit of the alliance, breaking through the stress matching of composite dielectric films and the high-precision patterning process of refractory metals, realizing localization, mainly detecting CO, VOC, NO Waiting for gas, the “14th Five-Year Plan” will break through the complete set of batch production process of three-dimensional heating table, further reduce the power consumption of the sensor, and improve the performance of the sensor;
(5) MEMS micro-flow sensor: Jointly develop MEMS micro-flow sensor with related companies for use in the field of inkjet printers, which is still a bottleneck in China. The successful breakthrough of this technology will lead the transformation of the inkjet printing industry with innovative MEMS technology, and will bring new market opportunities for industrial applications such as textiles, packaging, and printed electronics.
(6) MEMS pressure sensor: 6 types of pressure sensors have been developed to tackle key problems. The products are made of MEMS pressure sensor sensitive chips through SOI process, pressure cores formed by encapsulating the sensitive chips through metal isolation and liquid filling, as well as various types of conditioning completed with special ASIC chips. Transmitter products are mainly used in aerospace, ship-based ships, petrochemical and other fields. The micro-pressure sensor under development will be widely used in the field of medical health in the future.
Innovation Alliance work to innovate
During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, the “Intelligent Sensor Manufacturing Innovation Alliance (Center)” with the leading innovation capability in China will be built, a group of high-tech enterprises in key links of the industrial chain will be incubated, and some technologies and products will reach the international leading level, leading Anhui Province to become an integrated It is an internationally competitive and domestically leading smart sensor industry cluster that integrates R&D, manufacturing and service.
During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, the alliance will further accelerate the transformation of scientific and technological achievements and the development of military-civilian integration, give full play to technological advantages, promote the effective combination of technology, market and capital, and learn from the successful experience of the Microsystem Institute in exploring the establishment of a fund management platform company. The 214th Research Institute of the Ordnance Industry Co., Ltd. jointly initiated the establishment of an industrial fund jointly with provincial and municipal local governments, Zhongbing Investment and upstream and downstream enterprises in the industrial chain. The fund focuses on investments in the upstream and downstream R&D design, raw material production, equipment manufacturing, wafer processing, packaging and testing of the MEMS industry chain, and pays particular attention to design companies with technical advantages in the mainstream MEMS product direction of the alliance.
During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, the alliance will take the lead, integrate the advantageous resources of each member unit, and jointly apply for scientific and technological innovation projects including the National Development and Reform Commission, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, and the Ministry of Science and Technology, so as to enhance the alliance’s influence in the industry.
During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, priority will be given to opening the seven existing technology platforms of the 214th Research Institute of China Ordnance Industry to the member units of the alliance, and organizing the formulation of preferential policies for the transformation of project achievements among members of the alliance, so as to provide better quality for the industrialization development of the alliance. service.
Mr. Peter Riedel, President and Chief Operating Officer of Rohde & Schwarz, and Mr. Jürgen Meyer, Marketing Vice President of Rohde & Schwarz’s Automotive Division, warmly welcomed China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as China Automotive) at the company headquarters in Munich, Germany Center) a visit by a high-level delegation. The delegation from the China Automobile Center visited the latest test instruments and solutions of Rohde & Schwarz in the automotive industry.
On September 20, 2019, the Testing and Certification Division of China Automotive Industry Center held the “China-Europe Automotive Testing and Certification and Policy Standards Research Seminar” in Munich. Rohde & Schwarz supported and participated in this forum. Mr. Zhou Hua, General Manager of the Testing and Certification Business Department of CATARC, and Mr. Zhang Yue, Consul General of the Chinese Consulate General in Munich delivered speeches. The forum aims to introduce the latest standards and industry policies related to the automotive industry as well as the required industry certifications to auto and parts manufacturers who wish to enter the Chinese market.
At the same time, the Munich Laboratory of CARI Europe Testing and Certification Co., Ltd. was officially opened, which will become an ideal channel for communication between European automakers and the Chinese auto industry, and will also help European auto companies communicate with CATARC and help the European auto industry. Learn about the latest Chinese automotive standards and regulations, industrial policies, product certifications, and the overall technology roadmap for the Chinese automotive industry.
With more than 80 years of RF expertise, Rohde & Schwarz is an innovation driver and market leader in test and measurement solutions, driving the global automotive industry into new and rapidly growing markets by providing high-end test solutions. market. Rohde & Schwarz is committed to providing solutions to the current and future challenges of the automotive industry, enabling partners to master rapidly evolving and complex technologies when developing and testing automotive electronics. Through this high-level exchange visit, Rohde & Schwarz’s leading automotive testing technology has been further recognized by the China Automobile Center.
Rohde & Schwarz solutions cover the entire automotive industry chain from R&D to production and certification, covering all areas of smart cars from EMC/OTA, automotive radar, car networking, in-vehicle Ethernet and audio-visual entertainment, thus ensuring automotive manufacturing. Businesses obtain the certifications required by the industry. Rohde & Schwarz is committed to promoting the development of intelligent, connected and electrified vehicles, and is a reliable partner of the automotive industry.
For more information on Rohde & Schwarz solutions for the automotive industry, please visit: http://www.rohde-schwarz.com/automotive
As the Pentagon completes its troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, the U.S. Army wants to make sure that the next war is fought on the terms of future conflicts. That’s part of the driving force behind two interconnected plans called Army 2035 and Waypoint 2028 that spell out the changes the Army needs to make to win the wars it expects to fight in the future.
The U.S. Army describes its goal as “maintaining the edge,” an extremely awkward phrase meant to encompass everything that leads to victory in combat. This might include more soldiers, better positioned and longer-range artillery, or simply fighting in the right spot where the opponent is unprepared. If there’s a reason to use jargon when explaining how and why you win, it’s because advantages in battles and wars can take many forms, and it’s hard to guarantee that every one has an advantage.
As part of an ongoing review process, the U.S. Army Combined Arms Center at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, has identified four factors the Army needs to address to achieve its 2028 and 2035 goals. Taken together, the Army’s inventory of these factors, released on Aug. 6, sheds light on what kind of wars the Army expects to fight in the future.
The scale of future wars is huge
When the United States invaded Afghanistan in 2001, it dispatched thousands of soldiers. Between 2010 and 2011, the peak of US deployment, 100,000 troops were stationed in the country, albeit for a relatively short period of time. In 2003, the United States and Britain invaded Iraq with 125,000 troops and subsequently expanded their occupation. These numbers fluctuate as the war progresses, but aside from the initial invasion of Iraq, the troops are mostly used in small counter-insurgency battles. Patrols, small raids, and the occasional gunfight with insurgents located in a neighborhood or city are the default ways of warfare.
In reviewing Waypoint 2028, the Joint Arms Center examined the legacy of this discrete, small-scale battle and found that they lacked the kind of fast-paced, interconnected combat the U.S. Army hopes to fight against other militaries.
A January 2021 document on Doctrine outlines two possible scenarios, revealing how large-scale war is different from fighting an insurgency. The first is that if the battle goes well, soldiers may suddenly find themselves responsible for accepting the surrender of a large group of enemies. Gathering vital information from detained enemies is an essential part of counterinsurgency, but when many defections, such questioning is simply not possible on a large scale, and the Army would rather anticipate this outcome now than lose it in the future something important.
Another change for future wars is that the U.S. Army will not always be able to rely on friendly air support, which has been the default in the early stages of the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. This may not be the case against great powers, and soldiers should be trained for future big fights, understanding that the enemy may prevent air support or even launch attacks from the air themselves.
The future of war is connected
Wars have become interconnected, as the U.S. Army now knows. Ground-based reconnaissance planes can point laser target markers at enemy tanks, directing bombs dropped by jet fighters closer to their targets. Scouts communicate by radio, and guided bombs read GPS coordinates for more accurate strikes. Such attacks involve military tools on land, in the air, and in space, as well as communications across the electromagnetic spectrum. Putting all these areas together helps to understand how each individual tool could be used by the United States or other nations in the wider war.
To talk about this connectivity, the U.S. military uses the term “multi-domain operations,” another way of talking about tools being connected to each other even if they’re not physically connected. Of course, except in the fields of sea, air, land, and air, or areas that are harder to find, such as cyberspace and the electromagnetic spectrum, these actions also occurred in a timely manner. In addition, the communication link itself is a potential place for error.
Command and control, or the issuance and execution of orders, is critical for the U.S. Army to work together to win battles. The communication channels used, from GPS signals to radios to cell towers to commands in battle, can be jammed and attacked by jammers and intercepted by listening devices. This can lead to situations where soldiers lose contact with each other and their commanders.
As part of its 2028 plan, the Army wants to ensure that battles across time and distance can be won against an enemy willing and able to interfere with all the tools (such as helicopters, satellites and radio transmissions) that currently allow the Army to fight and spread out .
Figuring out how to ensure combat is the task of the future. 2028 and 2035 are still a long way off, and for now, the Joint Arms Center’s recommendation is to start training for future warfare now.
About the author: Kelsey D. Atherton is a defense technology reporter based in Albuquerque, New Mexico. He has worked on drones, lethal artificial intelligence, and nuclear weapons at Slate, The New York Times, Foreign Policy, and more.
Using the same password on different occasions can be easily obtained by hackers
Dark web transactions are fierce: the loss of information is expanding the financial “black hole”
Our reporter/Zheng Yu/Zhang Rongwang/Beijing report
In the Internet age, you may no longer have privacy.
Because your personal information is easily exposed in the process of various data circulation, black transactions such as personal data reselling are not uncommon.
A few days ago, the data of 500 million domestic users’ bound mobile phone numbers were first linked to the dark web (an Internet that uses special encryption technology to deliberately hide relevant information). Subsequently, Marriott International Hotel Group announced that the information of about 5.2 million guests may be leaked, including names, mailing addresses, email addresses, mobile phone numbers, etc.
The dark web, also known as the “hidden web”, requires multiple special means to access the “dark web”, and ordinary users cannot search and access through conventional Internet means.
On the dark web, the ID card usage track is priced at 0.02 bitcoin per copy (the current price is equivalent to about RMB 1,000 per copy), which includes bank, accommodation, railway, civil aviation (transportation) and other ID card usage records. As of April 2, 2020, the social platform robot found by the reporter involved in darknet trading showed that the “ID card usage track information” including bank, accommodation, railway, civil aviation (traffic) and other ID card usage records had been sold recently 18 Pieces, sold 5 pieces in the past week. The ID cards provided by other different sellers also use (track) to record the number of sold products, reaching more than 20 pieces.
In recent years, all kinds of information, including financial information, have flowed to the black industry and have been used in various fields such as financial credit collection and marketing.
“The fastest way to find out the borrower’s latest takeaway order and the call records 5 minutes ago.” A former collection officer of a subsidiary of a large state-owned bank told the “China Business News” reporter that collection companies generally purchase borrower information, including but not It is limited to the mobile phone number, takeaway, express delivery, air ticket, and train ticket information associated with the ID card.
The reporter tried to find a platform for selling information, but it only cost about 8 yuan to buy the address, platform account number, password and other information of himself and other family members, and the purchased information was accurate.
The information bought with money is used pervasively, and some people even use it to commit crimes.
On April 2, China UnionPay released a report saying that 51% of consumers have encountered online fraud.
In recent years, the police in various places (Beijing, Henan, Guangdong, Shanxi and Shaanxi) have issued many reminders to alert citizens to criminals obtaining citizens’ personal information through illegal channels and telecommunication fraud crimes. In the case released by the police, a college student was deceived of 70,000 yuan in just 2 days because the scammer claimed to be an employee of an online loan platform and was able to tell his details.
Origins: Insider Leaks and Hacking
Why are mobile phone numbers, passwords and other data leaked?
A network security person said that in recent years, Internet companies have been attacked by hackers, and cases of user data leakage have occurred frequently.
Recently, the People’s Bank of China (hereinafter referred to as the “Central Bank”) released a case of financial consumption “routines”, which introduced that after a customer handled mortgage, commercial loan and other businesses in a bank and inquired about his personal credit records, he often received information from small loan companies or Bank loan phone, asking about loan needs. After the customer reported the case, it was found that the bank’s internal staff re-sold his personal information to some so-called cooperative institutions. “The bank staff illegally sold customer account information, credit records, etc., and was suspected of breaking the law.”
An engineer from a financial company also analyzed to reporters that there are two sources of data leakage: one is technically derived from the back-end database, and the other is derived from the front-end by business personnel. The leakage of database data at the technical level may be caused by the illegal copying of data in the database by the company’s technical personnel. If a company has technical personnel leaking data, it indicates that the technical security management is not in place; at the same time, it may also be caused by hacker attacks. Generally speaking, the company’s system will have corresponding information security measures, so the situation caused by hacker attack is not common, but the result and impact of the entire database data leakage caused by hacker attack are usually serious. “The most common in the market is the leakage of customer information by business personnel, exporting the customer’s personal information and reselling it.” The engineer said.
So how do hackers steal user privacy?
One of its most common practices is credential stuffing. Credential stuffing is when hackers leak user data through a certain website they have mastered and try to log in to other websites.
Liu Xingliang, president of the DCCI Internet Research Institute and member of the Information and Communication Economics Expert Committee of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, told reporters: “Many ‘Xiaobai’ (novice) users use the same account password on different websites. , the obtained username and password are often used to try to log in to other websites in batches, which is the behavior of hacker stuffing.” That is to say, if you use the same password on different occasions, it is very likely that hackers can easily obtain it through credential stuffing.
“Similar to the credential stuffing principle, there are many social mobile phone application software (APP), all of which have the function of automatically matching the contacts in the mobile phone address book and becoming friends in the social software. When the user agrees to the permission of these apps to read the address book, at the same time , the APP began to automatically match the address book friends, and match the social platform account with the mobile phone number.” The above-mentioned big data industry practitioner said: “The data leakage incident that has attracted much attention is very likely that the hacker forged a local address book database. , a large number of mobile phone numbers are listed in the database in advance, and then a large number of mobile phone numbers and APP matching functions in the library are used to match the mobile phone numbers with the corresponding accounts one by one. Hackers often use Python web crawlers to capture a large number of social platform account related data on web pages Finally, the successfully matched data (such as mobile phone numbers, social platform accounts, account-related information) will be captured and saved together by crawler, resulting in personal data leakage.”
The above-mentioned person stated that the excessive collection of data has always existed. On the one hand, web crawlers crawl the website information excessively, causing the website to crash and website user information to be stolen. On the other hand, APP excessively collects user information, including covert collection, misleading consent, compulsory authorization, excessive claims, out-of-scope mobile phone personal information, and difficulty in account cancellation.
In recent years, relevant departments have attached great importance to the protection of personal information. The Central Cyberspace Administration of China, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Public Security, and the State Administration for Market Regulation have guided and established a special governance working group for the illegal collection and use of personal information by APPs to carry out APP rectification-related work.
Shocked: “The real-time financial information query service is not as simple as credential stuffing”
Some financial technology practitioners said that due to the existence of online black production and the chaotic state of information security before 2017, in his opinion, information reselling in batches is nothing new, but now the dark web can be so easily designated to query personal financial information, or is it still It was a shock to him, who had been in the industry for 8 years.
“Real-time designated query of a person’s bank flow and balance is definitely not something that can be done by credential stuffing. It is most likely done by internal personnel who master the database of financial institutions.” The above-mentioned financial technology practitioners believe.
After paying 100 yuan, the seller showed the reporter the function of inquiring the reserved mobile phone number and the bound ID number of the bank card through the name and the bank card number of a large state-owned bank. At the same time, the reporter saw that some dark net sellers will also have a service to check the balance of the bank card in the four elements of the bank card (name, card number, ID number, reserved mobile phone).
According to the dark web, paying 1,000 yuan can also query the bank card flow of a designated individual, including detailed bills of multiple banks for one month, three months, half a year, and one year. The price starts at 2,000 yuan.
In the view of the above-mentioned persons, in the process of data circulation, data ownership and authorization are unclear, which is an important reason for the proliferation of black transactions such as personal data reselling and social harm.
A person from a big data financial company said that taking the above-mentioned four elements of a bank as an example, the institutions that master these data include all service institutions that may obtain the data, not only banks, but also fund companies, brokerages, payment institutions, and even And e-commerce. That is to say, there are multiple channels for personal information to be leaked, which is likely to be overwhelming.
The channels are diverse, and the links are even more worrying.
“There are countless links where data leakage may occur. In many aspects of life, users need to submit personal financial information. For example, real estate brokerage agencies can also obtain users’ bank card information when assisting with housing loans and other businesses.” Liu Xingliang explained.
“The current leaked data is more of a historical issue for banks.” A banker said: “In recent years, banks did not pay special attention to the protection of customer information in the management of subordinate operating outlets in the early years. The four elements of customers and other account opening information in grassroots outlets have accumulated over time, and have gradually become the target of financial information black production. In order to profit from it, internal employees of grassroots outlets even have illegal behaviors such as reselling, which also breeds black transactions.”
The above-mentioned people also admitted that in recent years, the possibility of banks and internal employees actively leaking user data is relatively low. Because the various links and positions within the bank currently restrict each other, for example, the personnel with management authority cannot master the database, and the employees who master the database cannot query customer information at will. Every data call requires approval from various departments and levels, and it is less likely for employees to sell data to the outside world. “In addition, it is foreseeable that with the continuous strengthening of regulatory crackdowns, bank information security management will continue to increase, and the willingness to interact with data may be further reduced. Data-driven fintech companies may be greatly affected.”
In addition to traditional financial institutions, unlicensed fintech platforms and online lending platforms are also hardest hit.
“I have been paying back the money, but my family is overwhelmed, and the collector can still find my account on other social platforms. When there was still more than 200 yuan (arrears), the collector threatened to come to the door and charge a thousand yuan for the door-to-door fee.” One Online loan borrowers said.
The reporter once obtained a piece of online loan user data peddled on the dark web, including contact person, monthly income, salary payment form, mobile phone, working hours, contact address, loan amount and other information, and gave some detailed information. The reporter called many parties in the above data, and they said that the personal information was true. Among them, some users said that the information described by the reporter had been provided to online lending institutions and banks.
A person related to the online lending platform said that it does not rule out that some people use public information on the Internet and user data leaked by other platforms to sell under the name of the company. “The same borrower generally registers on multiple platforms. If these data are matched with other online loan platforms, there is a certain hit rate. It is more common that some failed online loan platforms are often neglected in data management and aftermath, resulting in such a situation.”
Consequences: Big data killing, information cocoon room, telecom fraud
In fact, not only financial information is exposed by various channels, but various personal information, including privacy, may be leaked.
“Currently, some mobile phone software has the permission to read the user’s album. If it automatically recognizes that the hair in the photo is sparse, it is possible to receive an advertisement for hair transplant.” A practitioner in the big data industry introduced reluctantly.
So what are the possible consequences of personal information leakage?
“The first is the abuse of data, for example, in the marketing process, big data kills (Internet companies provide the same goods or services, but the price seen by old customers is much more expensive than that of new customers. Merchants analyze personal data and conduct Pricing discrimination.” Experts say there is also abuse of data abroad to interfere in government elections.
In March 2018, Cambridge Analytica, a British political consulting firm, collected and used the personal data of 87 million Facebook users without authorization for the election of US President Trump.
Likewise, the information cocoon room deserves attention.
Zhang Taofu, the executive dean and professor of the School of Journalism of Fudan University, once wrote that the advent and popularization of algorithm recommendation is a manifestation of the progress of media technology, which allows information to be accurately connected with users, and personalized matching of information and users. “The catering recommendation of the algorithm will cause the flood of vulgar, vulgar, and kitsch information, which will lead to the solidification and generalization of some users’ low-level interests. Second, it will form the information ‘cocoon room’ problem. Personalized recommendation is bound to narrow the user’s choice of information, as if a wall has been built around the user, forming an information ‘cocoon room’.”
Many industry figures told reporters that personal data abuse and reselling often exist in marketing, credit risk control and even fraud.
On April 1, 2020, the Haidian Public Security Bureau in Beijing, the Criminal Investigation in Zhuhai City, Guangdong Province and other places issued a risk reminder of the scam of canceling online loan accounts, indicating that online loan fraud methods are on the rise again recently.
According to the Public Security Bureau of Pinglu County, Yuncheng City, Shanxi Province, a college freshman was defrauded of 70,000 yuan within 2 days. The reason was that a person who claimed to be an employee of an online loan company told him that because he registered for an online loan If you have a company account, you need to cancel the student account, otherwise you will not be able to borrow money in the future. During this period, the liar not only sent him ID card, business license and other information to prove his identity, but also the liar can accurately name the fresh student’s name and ID number. The victim student is now on the verge of autism, neither dare to I told my family that I was afraid I couldn’t bear it anymore, and the case is currently being further processed.
According to the police, the scammers obtained detailed personal information of users during the fraud process.
So how is a data breach legally held accountable?
Zhou Chenxi, a lawyer from Beijing Jincheng Tongda (Shanghai) Law Firm, told reporters that the first is the criminal aspect. Generally speaking, individuals involved in such acts are suspected of infringing on citizens’ personal information. This crime requires the perpetrator to have intention or consensus on the crime. Therefore, if the institution involved does not have the subjective intention of the leak, it is difficult to pursue the institution’s criminal responsibility. The second is the administrative aspect. At present, the administrative supervision of personal information protection in my country is gradually strengthening. If the institution has various problems such as negligence in management, failure to repair the discovered loopholes in time, and failure to manage the third party that cooperates well, it will lead to the occurrence of In the event of a data breach, or failure to take timely measures after a data breach occurs, resulting in further losses, the institution is likely to be punished by the administrative department. In addition, because the current laws and regulations have relatively high requirements on data security, once a data leakage incident occurs, various problems of the enterprise can often be found in turn, so the risk in this area is relatively large. The third is the civil aspect. There are not many existing cases in this area, and there are not many actual judgment institutions that bear civil liability. However, considering that the outcome of a civil case largely depends on the evidence, consumers or users often Failure to prove data leaked by the agency and failure to prove specific losses resulted in losing the case. The current issue of how much evidence consumers or users need to provide may also change. At the same time, considering the continuous emphasis on personal information at the regulatory level, such cases may continue to increase in the future.
“We should think about how to balance privacy protection and reasonable use,” the above-mentioned experts suggested. “At present, in terms of data security, I personally think that the most critical issue is the standardized use of data. Start with clarifying the retention period of personal information, clarifying data ownership and used, shared boundaries.”
[Introduction]Device power supply (DPS) ICs have flexible voltage drive and current drive capabilities to provide dynamic test capabilities for automatic test equipment (ATE). When the load current is between two set current limit values, the DPS IC can be used as a voltage source; when the set current limit value is reached, the DPS IC can be smoothly converted into a precision current source.
Figure 1. Schematic diagram of the MAX32010
Figure 1 shows the simplified architecture of the MAX32010 ADI device power supply. Switches FIMODE, FVMODE and FISLAVEMODE select different modes such as FV (voltage drive), FI (current drive) and FI slave selection, while switches HIZF and HIZM select MV (measure voltage) and MI (measure current) modes, respectively. Combined with an external sense resistor, the RANGEMUX supports multiple current ranges, RA (1.2A), RB (20mA), RC (2mA), and RD (200µA). Custom current ranges can be designed by changing the sense resistor value using the formula RSENSE=1V/IOUT. With the CLEN switch and ICLMP and VCLMPDAC, the user can also set the programmable voltage and clamp current.
This article begins with two important considerations when designing a device power IC in a system, range change glitch and efficiency. The article then details some considerations for building a DPS system that meets specific application requirements.
range change glitch
Figure 2. Comparing scope change glitches between ADI and the competition
Let’s look at the first consideration, the problem of glitches caused by changing the measurement range. When the ATE performs DUT tests, the system may need to change the current range for different tests. IDDQ or quiescent current measurements usually require the lowest current range and are used to measure smaller current values. Voltage spikes or glitches when moving to the lowest current range can not only affect the measurement, but can also damage the DUT. Glitch-free range changes protect the DUT and validate testing. When tested with a 270pF load capacitance, ADI’s DPS was able to perform this transition very smoothly without any glitches, as shown in Figure 2. If no load capacitor (0pF) is used, a transition will occur in 20µs with a ramp rate of 25mV/20µs. This transition produces much smaller glitches than competing products do when transitioning. The competitor DPS had a glitch of 159mV in microseconds. As a result, ADI’s DPS performance is 536% higher than the range change performance of competing products without causing any damage to the DUT.
Device Power Efficiency
Table 1. Competitive Analysis of Device Power Efficiency
Device power efficiency is the second most important consideration when selecting a DPS IC, as this factor directly affects the cost and reliability of the system. Higher efficiency leads to greater cost savings, greater reliability, and generally longer system life. A less efficient DPS produces more heat; more heat means more losses, and the failure rate of components in the system becomes higher.
The formula for calculating the power efficiency of a device is, Efficiency = Power Out / Power In.
As shown in Table 1, ADI’s DPS supplies more current (1.2A) with higher efficiency (58.33%) compared to the current supplied by the competitor’s DPS (1A). ADI’s DPS efficiency is 11% higher than Competitor 2’s DPS IC and 155% higher than Competitor 1’s DPS IC.
Now, let’s consider some aspects of building a DPS system to meet specific application requirements.
How to meet custom load current requirements in DPS
Figure 3. Selecting Custom Load Current Using Sense Resistor
Each ATE has custom load current requirements for each device under test (DUT). The MAX32010 allows a custom range to be selected by changing only 1 sense resistor value. The RANGEMUX in the MAX32010 selects one of the following current ranges: RA (1.2A), RB (20mA), RC (2mA), or RD (200µA). Select the sense resistor value by using the formula RSENSE=1V/IOUT. For example, the load current requirement is 5mA; 5mA is the custom load current, which belongs to range B. To choose the correct RSENSE: RSENSE=RB=1V/5mA=200Ω.
How to increase output current
Figure 4. Configuring Parallel DPS for Higher Output Current
In many cases, the current required by the DUT may be higher than what a single DPS chip can provide. As shown in Figure 4, additional currents in excess of 1.2A can be achieved by paralleling multiple DPS devices. Both devices remain in FI mode, doubling the current. For example, connecting two 7V, 1.2A devices in parallel can achieve a 7V, 2.4A output current.
Figure 5. 50% Duty Cycle Pulse Test Output of the MAX32010
To improve the output drive current capability of DPS, another method is pulse output. Pulse testing is a viable option if the current requirement is only for a short period of time, as shown in Figure 5. For example to test the IV characteristics of the DUT. By changing the duty cycle of the FI turn-on time, a pulse test can be performed. In this test, the DPS mode was set to FI mode 50% of the time and to “high impedance” mode the other 50% of the time. Depending on the DUT current requirements, the duty cycle may vary. We performed this experiment on the MAX32010IC and the results are as follows:
Maximum output current = 1.436A, duty cycle up to 50%
How to choose the right cooler for your DPS system
In order to obtain a reliable and stable system, the correct choice of heat sink is necessary. The following example shows a step-by-step guide to selecting the correct heat sink for the MAX32010.
Step 1: Get the relevant dimensions of the package. A package thermal analysis aids in selecting the correct heat sink. It is important to know the area of the exposed pad for heat dissipation.
Step 2: Obtain the PCB thermal properties to calculate the boundary conditions for θJA. Calculate power consumption, taking into account all methods of heat dissipation (conduction, convection, and radiation).
Figure 6. Temperature distribution of MAX32010 package with heat sink
Step 3: When calculating the temperature distribution of the package, the heat sink base area and the speed of the heat sink fan are two important variables. Remember that the junction temperature of the IC should be kept below the thermal shutdown temperature. Our analysis using still air shows that keeping the junction temperature below 140°C for the MAX32010 requires a heat sink with a base area of 30.48mmx30.48mm, a thickness of 5mm, and a heat sink length of 15mm.
Figure 7. Thermal Analysis of the MAX32010
Step 4: Airflow and heat sink material play an important role in keeping the IC’s junction temperature below 140°C. Our analysis shows that temperature performance can be significantly improved by increasing the airflow over the copper heat sink by 1m/s.
This article provides guidelines for selecting device power (DPS) ICs in automatic test equipment (ATE) systems. These considerations will help customers select a DPS IC based on their specific ATE system. A system-level architecture capable of meeting the output current and thermal requirements of an ATE system is also described.
The two-day 2021 China Auto Chongqing Forum concluded on June 13. The relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology said that the latest data shows that China’s electric smart vehicles have formed a certain first-mover advantage on a global scale.
The relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology pointed out that the current global automobile industry has entered a period of great changes unseen in a century, and electrification, networking, and intelligence have become the trend and trend of development, and the functions of automobile products have changed from simple means of transportation to mobile energy storage units, With the expansion of smart digital space, the proportion of electronics and software in the value chain is increasing. On the whole, my country’s auto industry has entered a period of superposition of its own transformation and upgrading and global technological change. The latest data shows that the development of this industry has achieved positive results.
Luo Junjie, Director of the First Division of Equipment Industry of the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology: The R&D capability of the company has been significantly enhanced, the product quality level has been steadily improved, and the production and sales volume of new energy vehicles has ranked first in the world for six consecutive years. In May of this year, our market penetration rate exceeded 10%, and the loading rate of new vehicles with L2 autonomous driving function exceeded 15%, forming a certain first-mover advantage globally.
The person in charge of the China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT) Automobile Industry Branch also pointed out that China’s automobile industry has ushered in a new era of electric intelligence. In 2020, although the sales of passenger cars in China declined slightly, the sales of intelligent and connected passenger cars rose. The sales of semi-autonomous vehicles exceeded 3 million, a year-on-year increase of 107%, accounting for about 15%. It is predicted that by 2025, the market share of partially autonomous and conditional autonomous vehicles will exceed 50%.